COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF MATHEMATICAL GAME AND INSTRUCTIONAL ANALOGY AS ADVANCEORGANIZERS ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT AND INTEREST IN MATHEMATICS
ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mathematical game and instructional analogy on achievement and interest of JS2 mathematics students. Six research questions and eight null hypotheses provided focus to the study. Literature confirmed that game activity was more physical (handson) than analogy activity which was more intellectual (mindson). The design was quasi experimental that employed a pretest, posttest` nonrandomized control groups. A total of 246 mathematics students stratified and randomly selected from students’ population of 3900 were involved in the study. Two instruments: Mathematics Interest Inventory (MIntIv) and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) were used for data collection and were validated by the experts and the reliability established to be 0.85 and 0.89 respectively. Also, mathematical game, bridging analogy teaching plan and lesson plan were used as instructional tools. Results were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, 2 x 3 Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) and Z test. From the findings, it was observed that; game and bridging analogy teaching enhanced both achievement and interest in mathematics more than lecture method; no significant difference exists in the achievement and interest of male and female mathematics students taught with either game or analogy; there was no significant interaction between teaching methods and gender on students’ achievement in mathematics; and a nonsignificant interaction effect was observed between teaching methods and gender as measured by the students interest in mathematics. Since game and analogy enhanced achievement and interest of mathematics (male and female) students equally, by implication teacher effectiveness resulting from the use of these techniques will affect students in learning mathematics which may result to a remarkable achievement and sustenance of learners interest. The study recommended that mathematics teachers should provide instructional activities such as games and bridging analogy teaching before, within and after a mathematics lesson in order to relate mathematics to real life; and to ensure that mathematics teachers grasp the tenets of the two techniques, preservice mathematics teachers should be trained on their uses during their training process and the inserving mathematics teachers alsoretrained.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Background to theStudy
For science and technology to successfully achieve the goals of sustainable development in any country, there is need to engage creatively in science and mathematics education. Bajah (2000) noted that no nation can make any meaningful progress in the information technology age, particularly in economic development without technology which has science and mathematics as its foundations. This is because the level of Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STME) of any nation has been widely accepted to be indicative of that nation’s socioeconomic and geopoliticaldevelopment.
In the National Policy on Education, Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004), mathematics is one of the core subjects to be offered by all students up till the tertiary levels of education. This compulsory nature of mathematics carries with it the assumption that the knowledge of the subject is essential for all members of the society. In fact, mathematics competence is a critical determinant of the post secondary education and career options available to young people (Okereke, 2006). Stressing on the importance of mathematics, Ukeje (1986) described the subject as the mirror of civilization in all the centuries of painstaking calculation and the most basic disciplinefor
any person who would be truly educated in any science and in many otherendeavours.
Despite the importance placed on mathematics, it is very disappointing to note that students’ performance in the subject at both internal and external examinations has remained consistently poor. Also, statistics show that mass failure in mathematics examination is real and the trend of students’ performance has been on the decline (Betiku, 2002; Maduabum&Odili 2006; WAEC, 2008; NECO,2009).
Many variables had been identified by Betiku (2002) as responsible for the poor performance of students in mathematics. Such variables include governments, curriculum, examination bodies, teachers, students, home, and textbook. The government failed to train and recruit more qualified mathematics teachers with a teacher: student ratio of 1:80 that will handle the abstract curriculum that does not address to immediate use of mathematics in everyday life. Some of the available few mathematics teachers give the students impression that mathematics is meant for special people. Apart from these variables, some specific variables have been identified by Udeinya&Okabiah (1991) and Amazigo (2000) to include: poor primary school background in mathematics, lack of interest on the part of the students, lack of incentives for the teachers, incompetent teachers in primary schools, students not interested in hard work,