A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POST-PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The world keeps advancing as time flies and this proves the need for education, in other to meet the advancement of civilization to ensure sustainable development (Taiwo 1980:p68). Education plays a pivotal role to the economy of any nation and the world at large. There will be about 3% increase in a nation’s economy with a positive approach on the state of education, according to World Bank. Education exposes individuals to a full knowledge of their fundamental human rights to avoid being trampled on (World Bank, 2002). When a nation’s intellectual resources are well utilized, it will aid development of the society.
Post-primary education plays a significant role in the social, mental, and career being of a child. What a child is taught in his post-primary education goes a long way in giving that child a sound education and career. A quality Post-primary education adds meaning to the growth of the society. The rate at which students in Nigeria migrate from primary to secondary school is about 88%, which is quite impressive; but the problem faced by most of these students is lack of continuity based on some factors.
Spatial distribution of post-primary schools is a part of human rights and development for the economic growth of a nation, though the spatial distribution of post-primary education in Nigeria is uneven. It is therefore pertinent to bear in mind that educational opportunities are equally measured based on spatial distribution.
In the past, some sub-Saharan African countries spatial distribution of post-primary education was mostly used by the elites as weapons to suppress some people in the country. Due to this, some parts of the country stand to gain from some educational presence than the other, and this is still prevalent in Nigeria.
Spatial distribution of post-primary schools involves the location (proximity between home and school), the cost of tuition fees and the cost of transportation. Sustainable development is achieved when human and land resources are in the same spatial context; though the invention of science and technology has actually helped to tackle the challenge of physical barrier. Tobler’s first law of geography asserts that there is a high level of relationship between things that are close, to those that are not (Tobler, 1979).
The spatial challenge of post-primary education is often times neglected and this has negatively affected the young minds of the country and the growth of the country as well. This challenge has equally cut-off some youths who would like to obtain quality education, most especially the rural dwellers. Some Nigerian children have to walk long distance to acquire quality education.
However, the purpose of this study is to seek for means with which these problems can be tackled; a comparative analysis of the spatial distribution of posts primary schools in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Recently, the level of post-primary school drop-outs in Nigeria is becoming alarming; as this is tied the barrier of spatial distribution of post-primary schools’ children. Many students are discouraged from going to school because the waste a lot of time and money going to school. A school located very far away from a student can make the student imbibe the bad attitude of lateness; which can with time become a bad habit.
Another problem is the cost of transportation to school located at a long distance. Students whose schools are far away from home spend so much on transportation.
However, poverty is another challenge of spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria as 110 million Nigerians live in abject poverty (Osinbajo, cited from vanguard 2015). Many Nigerian parents struggle to send their children to school, talk less of when they have to take care of transportation expenses as most of them cannot afford money to send their wards to the boarding house.
These are some of the problems that spurred the researcher to take up this study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this study is to carry out a comparative analysis of the spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
Other specific objectives include:
a) To determine the factors responsible for spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
b) To examine the effects of spatial distribution of post-primary education on the economy.
c) To examine the impact of spatial distribution of post-primary education on the performance of students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are generated to guide this study:
a) What are the factors responsible for spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria?
b) Are the effects of spatial distribution of post-primary education on the economy?
c) What are the impacts of spatial distribution of post-primary education on the performance of students?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There are no factors responsible for spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
H1: There are factors responsible for spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to inform and educate school administrators and the government that there is need to revisit the spatial distribution of post-primary schools, as most Nigerian students travel long distance to have access to education.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other work or study.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to a comparative analysis of the spatial distribution of post-primary schools in Nigeria.
Limitations of study
- 1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
- 2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: Is a study that compares and contrasts two things: two life insurance policies, two sports figures, two presidents, etc. The study can be done to find the crucial differences between two very similar things or the similarities between two things that appear to be different on the surface.
- SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION: Is the arrangement of a phenomenon across the Earth's surface and a graphical display of such an arrangement is an important tool in geographical and environmental statistics.
It is also the study of things in terms of their physical locations; basically we're asking where things occur and how they relate to each other. It's a useful field of analysis. After all, everything happens somewhere.
- POST-PRIMARY SCHOOLS: The post-primary education sector comprises secondary, vocational, community and comprehensive schools. ... Post-primary education consists of a three-year Junior Cycle (lower secondary), followed by a two or three year Senior Cycle (upper secondary), depending on whether the optional Transition Year (TY) is taken.
Taiwo CO. The Nigerian education system: Past present and future Lagos. Thomas Nelson (Nigeria) Ltd.1980; 66-90.
World Bank Human development sector for African Region, Uganda post-primary education, 2002; 15-60.
Tobler W., (1970) "A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region". Economic Geography, 46(2): 234-240.
Osinbajo. Y; (2015) “An article on Over 100m Nigerians living below poverty line” Vanguard Nigerian newspaper, August 20th, 2015.