INVESTIGATION CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION

ABSTRACT

The decades of violence in the Niger Delta region has prompted several initiatives aimed at addressing the causes of unrest in the region.  In spite of the contributions of these initiatives, the crisis appears to have persisted which points to the fact that the initiatives may have failed to satisfactorily solve the problems in the Niger Delta. This led to the introduction of amnesty programme by the late President Yar’Adua led-administration.  Thus, this study seeks to investigate conflict management in the Niger Delta region by focusing on amnesty program. The study has three objectives, research questions and hypotheses.  The study was divided into five chapters.  Chapter one focused on the background of the study as well as problem statement, research questions, hypotheses, significance and scope of the study; chapter two dealt with the review of related literature such as conceptual clarification, theoretical framework and empirical studies; chapter three explored the research methods in the area of research design, population and sample of the study, validity, reliability and method of data analysis. Chapter four dealt with the data presentation and analysis as well as the test of hypotheses.  Finally, chapter five explored the summary, conclusion and recommendations based on the analysis of data.


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Contents

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

1.2   Problem Statement

1.3   Objectives of the Study

1.4   Research Questions

1.5   Research Hypotheses

1.6   Significance of the Study

1.7   Scope of the Study

1.8   Operational Definition of Terms

        References

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0   Introduction

2.1   Conceptual Clarification

2.1.1 Overview of the Niger Delta Crisis

2.1.2 Amnesty Initiative in the Niger Delta

2.1.3 Niger Delta Militants: Freedom Fighters or Criminals

2.1.4 Amnesty Programme and Disarmament, Demobilization & Reintegration

2.1.5 Prospects & Challenges in the Implementation of Amnesty Programme

2.2   Theoretical Framework

2.3   Empirical Studies

        References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS

3.1   Research Design

3.2   Population of the Study

3.3   Sample of the Study

3.4   Method of Data Collection

3.5   Validity of the Instrument

3.6   Reliability of the Instrument

3.7   Method of Data Analysis

        References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1   Introduction

4.2   Preliminary Analysis

4.3   Analysis of Questionnaire Items and Presentation of Results

4.4   Test of Hypotheses

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1   Summary of Findings

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendations

        Bibliography

        Appendices


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

The prominence of the Niger Delta area in Nigeria is premised on its strategic relevance and resource endowment.  With the discovering of oil in the region prior to independence, the Niger Delta remains the preferred destination for investors especially oil explorers and oil investors. By 1950, Shell had already begun production at the rate of 5,100 barrels per day in the Niger Delta (Oromareghake, Arisi&Igho, 2013).  Mobil, Chevron Texaco and other indigenous oil companies later in the 1960s and 70s joined oil exploration which led to the discovery of oil in commercial quantity in the Niger Delta.  This has led to the increased output of oil production in the area and subsequently Nigerian reliance on the proceeds accruable from oil market.  In fact, as at 2004, the region accounts for over 80% of government revenue, 95% of export receipts and 90% of foreign exchange earnings (Imobighe, 2004).  The high level of production notwithstanding, incidences of poverty, conflicts, insecurity and underdevelopment remained despicable. Thus, the increased production and earnings seem not to have been translated into effective utilization of funds.

Incidences of poverty, conflicts, insecurity and underdevelopment still remain high in the region that apparently provides over 80 percent of government revenue. In fact, scholars (Eweremadu, 2008; Ibeanu, 2005: 2008; Ibeanu& Ike, 2006; Imobighe, 2004; Osaghae, 1995; Okonta, 2005) explained that Niger Delta is a contradiction in terms of level of poverty, conflict, underdevelopment and difficulties amidst plenty.  The consequence is youth’s restiveness, militancy, kidnapping, pipe line vandalism, oil theft and other forms of criminality and violent confrontation.  Thus, the inability of the Nigerian state to address genuine demands of the people in the area stimulated long years of clashes and confrontations between several youth groups and security agencies as well as oil multi-nationals. With the return to democracy in 1999, the military approach to containing the unrest exacerbated the already hostile security condition in the area leading to loss of human lives, oil and increased environmental devastation (Joab-Peterside, Porter, & Watts, 2012). They further explained that: this is added to the oil bunkering trade (on average 12% of production) which is a multi-billion business and the overall losses are astounding. Between January 2006 and the summer 2009 over 400 expatriate oil-worker hostages were taken; maritime piracy has shown a marked increase (even after the amnesty).

Between 2005 and 2009 there were over 12,000 pipeline vandalization, and over 3000 oil spills. Over 1million barrels of output were shut-in as a result of the deepening insurgency by the summer of 2009 (by some estimations output fell to around 1 million barrels b/d in the summer of 2009), 124 of 174 oilfields were shut, Shell’s western operation were closed and Nigeria as a consequence fell from its perch as the largest African producer (Joab-Peterside, Porter, & Watts, 2012). As can be seen, the Niger Delta after over half a century of crude oil exploration has remained grossly underdeveloped and indeed suffers from both human and ecological devastation.

Perhaps, putting into cognizance the fact that the government establishment of specialized agencies (Niger Delta Development Board, Niger Delta Basin Development Authority, Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission, NigerDelta Development Commission), that appear to have failed to satisfactorily tackle the Niger Delta challenges, the late President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua led administration initiated amnesty programme. Essentially, the amnesty programme is geared towards demobilizing the youths to ensure conducive atmosphere for development. As a result, a development plan which also necessitated the creation of the Niger Delta Ministry at the Federal level as part of frantic efforts to transform dilapidated infrastructures and ensure general development.  However, whether the amnesty approach is well founded still remains to be seen. This study seeks to examine the amnesty programme in the Niger Delta and to determine the extent it has helped in curbing conflict in the region.

1.2   Problem Statement

The decades of violence in the Niger Delta region has prompted several initiatives aimed at addressing the causes of unrest in the region.  In spite of the contributions of these initiatives, the crisis appears to have persisted which points to the fact that the initiatives may have failed to satisfactorily solve the problems in the Niger Delta. This led to the introduction of amnesty programme by the late President Yar’Adua led-administration.  Since the introduction of amnesty programme, there are scanty studies that have critically examined whether the amnesty programme helps in curbing conflict in the region.  Majority of the studies in this areas looked at underdevelopment, poverty, violence and insecurity in the NigerDelta (Ibeanu, 2000; Ikelegbe, 2001; Ibeanu, 2005; Ikelegbe, 2005; Omotola, 2006; Joab-Peterside, 2007; Saliu,Luqman&Abdullahi, 2007; Ibeanu, 2008; Enu&Ugwu, 2011; Faleti, 2012; Obadan&Chokor, 2013;Oromareghake, Arisi&Igho, 2013) without due attention to conflict management and amnesty programme in the region. Some of these studies seek to establish the relationship and theinterconnectedness of poverty specifically as regards to the Niger Delta violence since the discoveryof oil in the Niger Delta (Faleti, 2012; Okpo&Eze 2012; Ibeanu, 2005). Hence, other related positions that theend product of underdevelopment, neglect, marginalization and oppression of the people in the region is themanifest struggle to compel state authorities to address environmental difficulties confronting the people andindeed, ensure a corresponding improvement on development of the people in the Niger Delta.  Hence this study seeks to fill the gap inherent in literature on the area of conflict management and amnesty programme in the Niger delta region.

 

 

 

1.3   Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to investigate conflict management in the Niger Delta region by focusing on amnesty program.  The specific objectives include:

1.     To determine the nature of the conflict as it portents to undermine the economy of Nigeria.

2.     To ascertain the military option which hitherto escalate the Niger Delta crisis to insurgence in the country.

3.     To identify and evaluate the amnesty program as relevant approach in addressing the Niger Delta conflict.

1.4   Research Questions

The study is guided by the following research questions:

1.     To what extent does the nature of the conflict portents to undermine the economy of Nigeria?

2.     How has the military option which hitherto escalate the Niger Delta crisis to insurgence in the country?

3.     What are the amnesty program approaches in addressing the Niger Delta Conflict?

 

1.5   Research Hypotheses

        Correspondingly, three research hypotheses were formulated based on the objectives of the study.  The hypotheses are expressed in their null and alternative form(s).

Hypothesis I

Ho:   The nature of the Niger delta conflict does not portents to undermine the economy of Nigeria

Hi:    The nature of the Niger delta conflict portents to undermine the economy of Nigeria

Hypothesis II

Ho:   The military option escalated the Niger Delta crisis to insurgence in the country

Hi:    The military option did not escalated the Niger Delta crisis to insurgence in the country

Hypothesis III

Ho:   The amnesty program approach in not viable in addressing the Niger Delta Conflict

Hi:    The amnesty program approach in viable in addressing the Niger Delta Conflict

1.6   Significance of the Study

The significance of this study stems from the fact that there are scanty empirical evidence in this subject area, thus our study will bring to limelight the place of amnesty program in conflict management in the Niger delta region.  Also our study will add to existing literature in the area of conflict management in the Niger delta region.   This study will help policy makers in the Niger delta region and the nation at large to develop policies aimed at managing conflict as well as formulating effective policies towards curbing violence, kidnapping and other social vices.  Furthermore, the findings of our study will serve as a secondary source of data to interested researchers and students that may want to carry out future study in this subject related area.

1.7   Scope of the Study

This study seeks to examine conflict management in the Nigeria.  However the study will be delimited in scope to the amnesty programme in the Niger Delta and to determine the extent it has helped in curbing conflict in the region.

 

 

 

1.8   Operational Definition of Terms

*       Environmental Pollution:  This involves contaminating the environment         through gas flaring and oil spillage by multinational companies.

*       Conflict: This refers to a struggle or battle between several individuals in a particular region.

*       Amnesty:   This refers to pardon or official pardon given by the government to certain militia groups

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