THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON WORKER’S PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF NEIMENTH INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICALS PLC)
This research examined the Impact of Occupational Stress on Worker’s Performance with special reference to Neimenth International Pharmaceuticals Plc. The research adopted survey research design. Data were gathered through primary source with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of sample, this was used to eliminate biasness in the selection process of the respondents.
Data garnered were presented on table using percentage and the formulated hypotheses were analysed with the used of Chi-square statistical method. The result of the analysis shows that there is significant relationship between deadlines and stress. Also, there is significant relationship between working conditions and productivity of employees. And there is significant relationship between job insecurity and stress.
Based on the conclusion of the analysis recommendations were proffered to the staff and management of Neimenth International Pharmaceuticals Plc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page 1
Table of Content 3
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction 5
1.1 Statement of the Problem 8
1.2 Objectives of the Study 9
1.3 Significance of Study 10
1.4 Method of the Study 10
1.5 Scope of the Study 11
1.6 Research Questions 11
1.7 Research Hypotheses 11
1.8 Definition of Terms 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RELEVANT LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 The Review Literature 14
2.3 The Process of Stress 20
2.4 Management and Stress 21
2.5 Management 21
2.6 Sources of Occupational Stress 22
2.7 Causes of Stress 35
2.8 Stages of Stress 38
2.9 Consequence of Stress 39
2.10 The Cost of Stress 41
2.11 Stress Management 42
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 44
3.2 Research Design 44
3.3 Population of Study 44
3.4 Data Collection Instrument 45
3.5 Data Collection Procedure 46
3.6 Method of Data Analysis 46
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULT
4.1 Background Information 47
4.2 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents 48
4.3 Workers/Management Perception on Impact of Occupational
Stress on Workers Performance 52
4.4 Test of Hypotheses 62
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 68
5.2 Summary of Findings 69
5.3 Recommendations 70
5.4 Conclusions 71
Productivity refers to the measure of efficiency of a given input in producing a given output. Productivity improvement in the large society or organization has of recent generated much attention and concern. The success of failure of failure of an organization largely depend on its level of productivity which may be high or low depending on several factor (Irukwu, 2001).
Schular (1981), defined stress as “ dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both certain and important.
The inter-relationship between the mind and the body is well known as well as the link between stress and the human health. It is pertinent to know that not all stress can be both negative and positive and have both effects is bad. Stress can be both negative and positive and have both effects respectively. Infact stress is essential for human survival. A minimum amount of stress does not discriminate by sex, age or class. It affects everyone in all classes of the society.
People in organizations experience a lot of demand and pressure. These demand and pressure are often conflicting. Pressure emerges everyday in the course of work which causes a lot of stress on people. It is therefore necessary to understand the nature of stress, how people respond to it, its consequences and how control or manage it.
According to Oharei and Odejide, 1991 Stress can be seen as “the biological response to events that threatens to overwhelm the individual capacity to cope satisfactorily in the environment. It can also be seen that there is a potential for stress when an environment is perceived as presenting a demand that threatens to exceed the person’s capabilities and resources for meeting it under conditions here he expected a substantial differential in the regards and cost from meeting the demand versus not meeting it. This is to say that the causes of stress can be found not only within the environment but also within the individual. In the addition, the interaction of both can cause stress.
Green etal, (1990), defined psychological stress as a “particular relationship between a person and the environment that is appraised or perceived by the person as taking exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being. The perception of stress is the part to whether the person or individual experiences stress or not. This is the treason why what an individual considers as stress may not be stress to the other person.
Cooper and Marshal (1976), defined occupational stress as negative environmental factors or stress associated with a particular job. Stress is very common in the workplace than in other aspect of life. However, it is pertinent to know that the work environment can pose as a danger to the health and well being or workers. Satter et al, 1990 stated that “the work environment is a threat or risk factor with regards to the physical health and safety of workers. Occupational stress may result due to lack of co-operation or harmony between a worker and his work environment. The work environment an individual is exposed to have a relative effect on his health, social and psychological needs and also to enhance the quality of life of such a person.
The adverse effects of occupational stress can lead to either Behavioural, Psychological or even semantic problems. Responses to such behaviour could be insomnia, dizziness, fatigue, headache, frustration, anger, fear, aggression, hyperactivity etc. Other possible response of long term stress could be arthritis, ulcer, and constipation, susceptibility to disease or infection, backaches, heart problems, appetite loss, indigestion, increased blood pressure. These physical disorders would culminate in some familiar emotional problems such as marital strife, sexual problems, excessive drinking, and eating junk food instead of meals.
As mentioned earlier the anxiety on the part of workers to meet up with expectations or target put them under so much pressure which will eventually lead to stress and consequently inadequate performance. Several other factors causes occupational stress such as work overload, Role conflict Deadlines, Poor working conditions, it is however important for individuals to know about personal stress control or management and also 5the organization to put in place mechanism for organizational stress management.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research work is necessary now than every considering the rate of environmental hazards that employees are exposed to daily, the condition of work, the quality of food people consume, due to longer hours at work which over expose them to junk foods.
Hence, the study will focus on occupational stress can be controlled and managed in Neimeth Pharmaceuticals Plc. As it is recorded to be a determinant of occupational performance in productivity thereby causing disturbances at work.
Furthermore, problems such as failure of companies in providing health Insurance scheme for their workforce, high rate of job insecurity, the setting of unrealistic deadlines, improper working conditions and absence of counseling department in organizations.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study will give explanation to the impact of occupational stress on workers performance and how it can be managed. The objectives of the study will be the following:
- The study will reveal the causes of occupational stress and its impact on workers performance.
- Investigate if there is provision for medical insurance policy for every worker.
- Ascertain whether realistic deadlines are being set and if targets are met.
- Find out if there is proper working condition available to workers and if counseling is readily available to them
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of this research work, these are the questions:
- Do you think deadlines can be linked to stress?
- Does working conditions have a role to play in stress?
- Do you think job insecurity is not one of the factors that cause stress?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
- There is no significant relationship between deadlines and stress.
- There is no significant relationship between working conditions and productivity of employees.
- There is no significant relationship between job insecurity and stress.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The importance of this research work is in the following areas:
- It will enable the management of Neimeth International Pharmaceuticals Plc and other companies to know the implication of occupational stress on workers performance and dhow to recognize and control it.
- It will reveal the gains to be derived from having Medical Insurance Scheme.
- It will help to show that proper working conditions can help to control stress.
- It will reveal the need for proper staff canteen in organizations.
- The study will reveal if truly occupational stress can be managed effectively.
1.6 METHOD OF THE STUDY
The method of data collection to be adopted in this research study will be the use of both primary and secondary data collection source. The primary data will be through the use of a well structured questionnaire that would be personally administered. The secondary source is through the use of textbooks, journals, articles and library. The hypotheses will be analyzed using the chi-square to determine or not a relationship exists between the variables.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study shall concentrate on the impact of occupational stress on workers performance. The research will however limit its study to Neimeth Pharmaceuticals Plc in Ikeja, Lagos state. The questionnaire shall be strictly limited to the staff of the company.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Distress: This is dysfunctional for individuals and organizations.
Eurostress: This is a positive type of stresses that energized or makes superior effort possible.
Performance: It can be described as how well or badly an individual does his work.
Personality: It is the distinctive patterns of behaviour including thoughts and emotions that characterize each individual’s adaptation to the situation of his or her own life.
Pressure: The difficulties and feelings of anxiety that are caused by the need to achieve or behave in a particular way.
Productivity: The measure of the efficiency of a given resource input such as labour or capital in producing a given output.
Stress: It is a state of tension experienced by individuals facing extra-ordinary demands, constraints and opportunities.