EFFECT OF POOR ORGANISATIONAL JOB DESIGN ON EMPLOYEE JOB PERFORMANCE.

CHAPTER 1: Introduction

Work design refers to a spectrum of job factors, ranging from internal and external organizational factors to the way tasks are organized, that affect what people do at work and how effectively they can do it. The concept has roots in psychological research and theories of work motivation to improve employee satisfaction and performance and therefore increase organizational productivity and efficiency (Campion, Mumford, Morgeson & Nahrgang, 2005). Much of the research centers on employee perceptions of tasks, the relationships between those perceptions and the behavioral outcomes as a result of those relationships (Griffin, Welsh & Moorhead, 1981). More attention is being paid to job design for three major reasons:

• Job design can influence performance in certain jobs, especially those where employee motivation can make a substantial difference. Lower cost through reduced turnover and absenteeism are also related to good job design.

• Job design can affect job satisfaction. Because people are more satisfied with certain job configurations than with others, it is important to be able to identify what makes a “good” job.

 

 

• Job design can affect both physical and mental health. Example problems such as backache or leg pain can sometimes be traced directly to job design, as can stress and related high blood pressure and heart disease.

scholars have customarily describes jobs as set of tasks which is deliberated plan to be accomplish by one employee and tasks in simple words is the allocation of small patches of work to an employees who have been accomplish it within the given time period (Griffin, 1987). Grant (2007) further elaborate tasks as the fundamental and essential bases of jobs that neglect the reality that jobs are intended with highly structured relational mechanism that impacts not only employee’s interpersonal relations but associations as well.

 

 

 

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1.1            Background of the Study

Job design (also referred to as work design or task design) is a core function of human resource management and it is related to the specification of contents, methods and relationship of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder. Its principles are geared towards how the nature of a person's job affects their attitudes and behavior at work, particularly relating to characteristics such as skill variety and autonomy. The aim of a job design is to improve job satisfaction, to improve through-put, to improve quality and to reduce employee problems (e.g., grievances, absenteeism).

Business Leaders always motivate the people that they should pursue a collaborative work design in which they make sure that employees should be responsible for their work performance (Tanner, 1998). It is found that sometimes the imminent bond of job and goals setting can help to enhance the level of performance and the design of job can increase not merely the satisfaction but also the worth of performance as well. The research intends to investigate the effect of improper organizational job design on employee job performance

 

1.2            Statement of the Problem

Work design refers to a spectrum of job factors, ranging from internal and external organizational factors to the way tasks are organized, that affect what people do at work and how effectively they can do it. The concept has roots in psychological research and theories of work motivation to improve employee satisfaction and performance and therefore increase organizational productivity and efficiency

Many people tend to assume that the most important motivator at work is pay. Yet, studies reveal that Job design has a major influence over worker motivation and productivity. How a job is designed has a major impact on employee motivation, job satisfaction, and commitment to an organization, absenteeism, and turnover. The question of how to properly design jobs so that employees are more productive and more satisfied has also received attention from managers and researchers. Improper design of jobs is most going to have a some effect on employee performance. Therefore the problem confronting this research is to investigate the effect of improper   organizational job design on employee job performance.

 

1.3            Objective of the Study

1 To determine the nature of job design

2 To determine the significance of job design

3 To determine the effect of improper job design on employee performance.

 

1.4            Research Questions

1 What is the nature of job design?

2   What is the significance of job design?

3 What is the effect of improper job design on employee performance?

 

1.5            Significance of the Study

 

The study shall provide a detail appraisal of the nature and significance of job design

It shall appraise the effect of improper job design on employee performance.

The study shall also serve as source of information on issues of job design and employee performance.

 

1.6            Statement of Hypothesis

1 Ho The level of employee performance is low

    Hi The level of employee performance is high

2 Ho The level of improper job design is low

     Hi   The level of improper job design is high

3  Ho  The effect of improper job design is low

    Hi   The effect of improper job design is high

 

1.7    Scope of the Study

The study is focused on the appraisal of the effect of job design on employee performance.

 

1.8     Definition of Terms

 

JOB DEFINED

scholars have customarily describes jobs as set of tasks which is deliberated plan to be accomplish by one employee and tasks in simple words is the allocation of small patches of work to an employees who have been accomplish it within the given time period (Griffin, 1987).

 

TASK DEFINED

Grant (2007) further elaborate tasks as the fundamental and essential bases of jobs that neglect the reality that jobs are intended with highly structured relational mechanism that impacts not only employee’s interpersonal relations but associations as well.

 

Skill variety — This refers to the range of skills and activities necessary to complete the job.        The more a person is required to use a wide variety of skills, the more satisfying the job is likely to be.

Task identity — This dimension measures the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. Employees who are involved in an activity from start to finish are usually more satisfied.

Task significance — This looks at the impact and influence of a job. Jobs are more satisfying if people believe that they make a difference, and are adding real value to colleagues, the organization, or the larger community.

Autonomy — This describes the amount of individual choice and discretion involved in a job. More autonomy leads to more satisfaction. For instance, a job is likely to be more satisfying if people are involved in making decisions, instead of simply being told what to do.

Feedback — This dimension measures the amount of information an employee receives about his or her performance, and the extent to which he or she can see the impact of the work. The more people are told about their performance, the more interested they will be in doing a good job. So, sharing production figures, customer satisfaction scores etc. can increase the feedback levels.

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