TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.1 The Nature and Definition of Teacher’s Educational Qualification
2.2 Concept and Causes of Poor Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Economics
2.2.1 Family Background and Poor Academic Performance of the Child
22.214.171.124Types of Family and Students’ Academic Performance
126.96.36.199Family Size and Position in the Family
188.8.131.52 Family Educational Background and Socio-Economic Status
184.108.40.206 Types of Discipline At Home
2.2.3 School Factors
220.127.116.11 School Location and Physical Building
18.104.22.168 Interpersonal Relationship among the School Personnel
22.214.171.124 Quality of Teaching Staff
126.96.36.199Teachers’ Method of Teaching
188.8.131.52 Classroom Management
184.108.40.206 Learning Environment
2.2.4 Peer Group Influence
2.3 Factors Affecting Teacher’s Academic Qualification in Economics
2.4 The Need for Teacher Education
2.5 The Need for Educational Planning and Human Capital Development
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
4.2 Age of the Respondents
4.3 Gender of the Respondents
4.4 Qualifications of the Respondent Teacher’s
4.5 Hypothesis Testing
4.6 Discussion of Results
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
It is imperative to enunciate the nature and trend of educational progress in any developing country. Education is a systematic intellectual and moral training, geared towards obtaining knowledge, development of character and also mental development that will ensure human survival. This becomes a reality through effective teaching and learning. The performance of students in school greatly depends on the ability and capacity of the prospective teachers and the school administration.
Hence, an efficient, reliable and courteous teacher equipped with professionalism, creative imagination, costly ingenuity and depth of experience is a necessity for optimal performance in the 21st century.
The differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria (Adebule, 2004). Parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend. Teachers also complain of students’ low performance at both internal and external examination. The annual releases of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination results (SSCE)
conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) justified the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subjects.
The National Policy of Education states, “No Education system can rise above the quality of teachers in the system” (Fgn, 2006). Orgunsaju (2004), states that the academic standard in all Nigerian educational institutions has fallen considerably below societal expectations. Blumende (2001), corroborated this view when he reported that the decline in the quality of education cannot be ignored by anyone who is aware of the significant role of education as an instrument of societal transformation and development. There is a need to focus on teachers’ adequacy and competency in respect to their pedagogical practices and strategies and mastery of the curriculum and subject content (Chall & Popp, 1990; Stuart, 2004; Rodgers, 2001). In support of the aforementioned scholars, Ekwesili (2006), institutionalized the Private Public Partnership (PPP) and School Based management Committee (SBMC) to manage secondary education and to promote school effectiveness since students’ success depends on the amount of learning that takes place in the classroom and other related how effective and efficient the teacher performs in schools. Ijaiya (1998), concurred and opined that improving the quality of the teaching force in schools is seen as the key to raising student achievement. Thus, raising educational standards should be the government’s number one priority. Similarly, Lassa (2000), and Guga (1998), claimed that education cannot be provided by just anybody, it requires a teacher who plans and
delivers the lessons or instruction in such a way that objectives can be achieved. An uncertified teacher cannot prepare students for WASCE/GCE because it is unlikely that they could pass. Corroborating this,,. Owolabi (2007), stated that government should find all possible means to retain veteran and experienced teachers who are still willing to serve so that they can contribute their wealth of experience to improving the system. The Baguada Seminar Reports on Quantities and Qualities in Nigerian Education (NERC, 1980) as cited by ESA, (2005) also shared the consensus that teachers are the main determinants of quality in education: If they are apathetic, uncommitted, uninspired, lazy, unmotivated, immoral, and anti-social, the whole nation is doomed. If they are ignorant in their disciplines and thus impart wrong information, they are not only useless but dangerous. Therefore, the kind of teachers trained and posted to schools may well determine what the next generation will be like. Based on the aforementioned statement, this study examined the relationship between the quantity and quality of teachers/the relationship between the quality and quality of teachers/principals and students’ academic performance in economics.
Abraham and Keith (2006), used a questionnaire as the basis for constructing an index of school effectiveness. Their findings revealed that teachers were the key drivers of internal school conditions for effectiveness, development and school change. Ibitoye (2003), discovered that there is a significant relationship between enrolment, utilization of classrooms provided for teachers, the teaching of learning activities and students
academic performance. In the same way, Akpofure and N’dipu, (2000), reported the need for schools to maintain a manageable carrying capacity in utilization of classrooms, libraries and laboratories for effective teaching and learning. To them, this will pave the way for quality assurance in schools. A similar study by Aduwa (2004), on determinants of students’ academic success, reported that a student’s home environment, their cognitive abilities, self-esteem, self-concept, (2005), contended that the provision of all these factors may not have significant principals, teachers and other school teams. Also Ehrenberg and Brewer 1995), and Ferguson (1991) asserted that students learn more from teachers with strong academic skills. According to these researchers, teachers’ assignments depend on their qualification of the subject (s) being taught. Middle and high school students learn more from teachers who hold Bachelor’s or Master’s degrees in the subjects they teach and from experienced teachers than they do from less experienced ones (Darling-Hammond, 2000).
In a study on human resource and organizational achievement, Egungun (1992) found that the placement of only the right employees in the right jobs, at the right time and places assist greatly in attainment of organizational set goals and objectives.
Different studies showed that the most important resource input in the school is teacher quality (TQ) that predicts student achievement. The economists, who measure the effect of TQ on student learning and achievement, provide evidence of the importance of teaching. Researchers look for he teachers’ effectiveness as a determining factor for student achievement. An effective teacher will have students with a good test score. In this way, the researchers isolate the effect of TQ from that of other factors that may affect student achievement.
TQ has an important role in student achievement as Goldhaber (2003) stated that:
Teachers clearly play an important role in shaping the future of individuals as well as of entire generations and in recent years, new research has demonstrated the dramatic effect that teachers can have on the outcomes of students from all academic and social backgrounds.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The annual release of SSCE results conducted by the WAEC justified the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subjects including economics. In the just concluded SSCE examination, WAEC made known that only 20% of students passed five (5) compulsory subjects. Adebule (2004), stated that all over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria. Parents and Government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend. Morakinyo, (2003) believe that the falling standard of academic achievement is attributable to teachers’ non use of verbal reinforcement.
So therefore, it is observed severally that senior secondary school students pay less attention to elective subjects i.e economics and teachers’ attitude towards changing this view in students through their prospective skills, method of teaching and level of experience is poor.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of teacher’s educational qualification on the performance of senior secondary school students in economics. Specifically, the objectives of the study are:
- To Examine the impact of teacher quality on the academic achievement of secondary school students in economics.
- Determine the qualities that make up a good economics teacher.
- Examine the roles of economics teachers in improving students’ performance.
- Examine the relationship between economics teachers teaching method and students performance.
- Suggest for educational planners and policy makers in the state teaching service commission.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is the level of teacher’s contribution towards student’s performance in economics?
- What are the qualities that make up a good economics teacher?
- What is the level of teachers increase in the performance of senior secondary school students in economics in this present millennium?
- What is students’ perception on their poor academic performance and teacher’s methods of teaching?
- How can educational qualities of teachers lead to students’ performance in economics?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research seeks to test the following null hypotheses and make decisions on their outcome based on the data that will be gathered.
H0: Teacher qualities have no strong influence on academic achievement of senior secondary school students.
H0: There is no significant difference between teachers’ years of experience and student’s academic performance in economics.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research study will look at the impact of the teachers to the performance of senior secondary school students in economics.
Because of time constraint, This study will be delimited to the research design in the five (5) randomly selected secondary schools in yaba local government area of Lagos state, namely, Lagos city college, kings college Lagos, queens college, eletu odibo secondary school and our lady of Apostle school, Yaba.
Out of the five randomly selected schools, fifty (50) students offering economics will be randomly selected in all.
Research instrument will be the questionnaire, while a non-parametric test will be used to present the data.
1.7 SIGNIICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of the research work will be of help to teachers, students, school management and educational planners as well as the entire society. It will guide the school management on what qualities and qualifications to look for in recruiting facilitators. It will also give teachers an insight into what is expected of them. Also, these findings can be used to guide educational planners about the need for qualified economics teachers to facilitate effective teaching and learning in secondary schools.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms were define according to the circumstances of their usage.
Teacher qualification: This refers to the level of academic achievement of a teacher beginning from the level of teachers training to the level of in-service training.
Student performance: This refers to the ability and capacity of the student to achieve an educational aim.
Economics: Economics is a science of allocation and distribution of scarce means to satisfy human unlimited wants.
Teacher education: This refers to a means through which prospective teachers are trained to teach.
Human resources management: It is a means of supervising, directing and controlling the numbers of people who have skills, educational and experience that are critical for the socio-economic development of a country.
Educational planning: This is a proposed intention at achieving educational aims and improving teaching and learning.