The study attempted to examine the effect of information communication technology (ICT) on students’ academic performance in Mathematics in selected secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State. In this study, relevant and extensive literature was reviewed under subheadings. The survey research design was used to assess responses of the selected respondents, with the application of the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of 200 (two hundred) respondents were selected and used for this study, which represented the bulk of the population.
Five (5) null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study, using the Pearson product moment correlation and the independent t-test statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance.
Based on the data analyses, it was concluded that a significant relationship existed between the information communication technology and students’ learning behaviour in school; also, it was found that a relationship exists between information communication technology and students’ academic performance at school. Similarly, it was concluded that, no significant difference exists between students’ perception of information communication technology and that of their teachers. Equally, it was revealed that a significant gender difference exists between students’ academic performance based on the use of information communication technology (ICT), while it was finally indicated that a significant difference exists between the academic performance of students who frequently used ICT and those who did not use ICT frequently.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 3
1.2 Statement of the Problem 8
1.3 Purpose of the Study 10
1.4 Research Questions 11
1.5 Research Hypotheses 13
1.6 Significance of the Study 14
1.7 Definition of Terms 16
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 17
2.1 The Concept and Nature of Mathematics in Schools 18
2.2 Gender and Learning Mathematics in School 23
2.3 Factors Affecting Choice of Subject and Problem-Solving
among Boys and Girls in Mathematics 29
2.4 The Concept and Nature of Information Communication
2.5 The Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) 39
2.6 The Problems Inhibiting Utilization of Information
Communication Technology 43
2.7 Information Communication Technology (ICT) and
Students’ Achievement in Mathematics 47
2.8 The Impact of Information and Communication
Technology on School Achievement 52
2.9 Summary of Review 56
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 58
3.1 Research Design 58
3.2 Population 59
3.3 Sampling Technique 59
3.4 Sample Size 59
3.5 Research Instrument 59
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument 60
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 60
3.8 Data Analysis 61
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis and Presentation of Results 62
4.0 Introduction 62
4.1 Testing of Hypotheses 62
4.2 Summary of Findings 66
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 68
5.1 Introduction 68
5.2 Summary of the Study 68
5.3 Conclusions 69
5.4 Recommendations 71
The predominant means of instruction has traditionally been through verbal medium, either as spoken lecture or written text. As more instructional resources of many different media types become available to students, through the internet, there is a need for educators to understand when these sources may be used effectively for instruction, as well as a need for students to develop an additional set of literacy skills in order to learn from these sources (Anyakoha, 1990).
Tyner (2000) argued that in the information age, the concept of literacy has been simultaneously broadened and splintered into many literacies in part because “the all purpose word literacy seems hopelessly anachronistic, tainted with the nostalgic ghost of a fleeting industrial age. The term information communication technology is among several terms that have been associated with literacy to emphasize that literacy extends beyond reading and writing the alphabetic codes, and should include a variety of audio-visual forms of representation. Associating information communication technology with the literacy also highlights a belief among many scholars and educators that conceptions of literacy or studentship and how it is developed should not focus exclusively on printed materials but should include electronic media that have moved into the mainstream of communication especially at the end of the twentieth century.
Implicit in these views is that research and practice related to literacy must be transformed to accommodate new ways of accessing, processing and using information by students generally and those in Mathematics in particular (Aaron, 1997).
Information encompasses a wide range variety of things ranging from oral and printed words, figures, statements, files and documents to such intangible elements as sound signals, rays and waves. Whatever the form information takes, the essence of information is that it conveys messages.
UNESCO (1979), defined information simply as “set of data recorded in a methodical manner” which includes: any item of knowledge capable of facilitating the operation of a system; and any numerical or alpha-numerical quantity processed by the machine, the aggregate of information constitutes the data and results of a problem.
Adamson (1998), claims the term information technology refers to the application of scientific knowledge. Information communication technology, therefore can be defined as the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictoral, textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication.
ICT enhances students’ performance in Mathematics both in secondary and tertiary institutions in Nigeria. For instance, students in science, particularly those studying Mathematics, find the use of information communication technology relevant in recalling facts and figures and in doing quick calculations which enhances their achievement in schools.
1.1 Background to the Study
The greatest achievement in the twentieth century was the development of Information Communication Technology (ICT) for the use of all facets of human endeavours. Major challenges in technology have been always caused changes in the society. In the middle of the 18th century, a series of interventions made it possible for people to “mass produce” items. The then agricultural world became industrial world. The methods of product transportation and communication were improved significantly and the elite group acquired many fortunes rapidly by using as a commodity and the organized banking system as the means of controlling the new industrialized society (Kaiya and Ndomi, 1999).
According to Osusanya and Oloyode (2003), with the rapid growth of industrialization, came the need for handling the ever increasing volume of information concerning parts and people. This formed the basis for the development of the computer. At present, powerful computers are used to store large volumes of information. Information and communication technology is the major employer of computers so much that the two are thought to be synonymous. Goyal (1998) pointed out that its growth and development is one of the most significant achievement of the present century.
As Akubilo (2005) puts it, the revolution implied by information communication technology is placing different demands of education on generation, science and mathematics in particular these demands cannot be met through simple revision of the current curriculum or currently existing textbooks. This is because, ICT revolution has transformed available technologies, the means and methods of teaching and learning the sciences, especially in mathematics, and the very way we think about what science education could do and should do. The paradigm now is that not only should students be made to understand basic mathematical concepts, they must also understand how mathematics education and the (ICT) are related. With the internet, it is possible to access learning mathematical materials anywhere in the world. The opportunities available to science staff and the students on the internet are numerous and those making use of it are better off for it. Students who often apply the use of ICT in their educational career do better than those who do not.
As a matter of fact, there are several sites on the worldwide web (www) which provide information on how the network is used for the teaching of various science or mathematics courses. The materials at the sites teach students to think laterally, longitudinally and across board. Results of the studies conducted on impact of computer used as aid to instruction on students’ attitudes and achievement in science, particularly in mathematics related courses showed general improvement.
Dung (2003), Babajide and Bolaji (2003) and Zumyil and Ezema (2003), opined that inspite of the tremendous impact and widespread usage of ICT facilities in the teaching and learning of science related courses worldwide, it is pertinent to ask how prepared the Nigerian secondary and tertiary institutions are whether federal or state owned in coping with the challenges posed by the ICT. The answer to this question is not far-fetched. Analysed within the context of global competitiveness of the information age, the stage of ICT facilities in Nigerian secondary and tertiary institutions show that there is a slow wave of development (Yerima, 2002; and Lsoun, 2003). Yet the quality of instruction in colleges or event at the secondary level of our education system, must keep pace with the development of new trends in ICT education, which are revolutionalizing the lives of those who can afford to use it. In the modern culture of science and technology, the competence of science staff in educational attainment, is gauged by the training they acquired and their effective utilization of ICT facilities in students’ assignments. Unfortunately, a vast majority of science teachers in our secondary schools are deficient in these areas.
Telecommunication is a special kind of communication in which information is conveyed over a long distance. Information communication technology (ICT) also refers to the more efficient and effective way of storing, accessing and updating information than processes involving paper. In the recent time, students have benefited from the use of information communication technology (ICT) such as computer, television, telephone and the internet as a veritable sources of information in their academic career or pursuit, especially in science and mathematics related disciplines. Uzoma (1999), students, mostly adolescents use the information communication technology especially the internet to gather vital educational information or materials, register their courses of study, check their results of JAMB, NECO, GCE, POST UME etc.
Onuoha (2000), posited that the advent of information technology has made education more simple and easy for students especially, the adolescents in secondary schools mathematics in our school system. Onuoha claimed that information communication technology has helped students in many ways such as project writing and collection of necessary information leading to effective studies. This has enabled many students to achieve high academic achievement in school. He further stated that information communication technology has created a remarkable balance and effectiveness in the daily activities of students who are in the habits of using the computer and the internets to carry out faster storage and retrieval of information in the academic environment or school.
As Adelekunnu (1994) puts it, the training given to children in order to help them meet the demands of the society in which they live is called socialization. According to him, information communication technology (ICT) can be used to assist students to get along with others, achieving self-reliance and educational success. Also, it can help them to achieve professional success and to adhere to societal values and norms. With information technology, students achieve high academic laurels in schools, especially in science and mathematics related subjects.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Information communication technology (ICT) as an effective means of storing, accessing, retrieving or collecting vital information is often times used by students to carry out their educational activities. With the advent of information technology, students access information that lead them to successful academic and professional achievement. Nevertheless, information communication technology seems to have corrupted students, especially, the adolescents in their formative ages that are in secondary school. For instance, students are often seen glued for hours to the television and the internet watching or viewing pornographic films or pictures that are capable of bending their minds and distorting their dispositions. Studies have shown (Asobie et al., 1995), that students who browse the internets often are more corrupt than those who do not.
Students who use the internet often or watch the television involved in sexual promiscuity, examination malpractices, stealing and other vices or indisciplines that are always carried out in the school.
In recent times, many students have been caught using Global System Mobile Network (GSM) phones to carry out or perpetrate examination malpractices; especially in calculation-based courses like Mathematics and other science related ones to connect friends and associates in crimes.
Both adults and students are found to use the GSM phones to tell assorted kinds of lies and deceit in the larger society and this has made corruption to be well rooted in the society in which we live. The more advanced manner in which television programmes are aired are commendable, but many of the programmes show very bad and aggressive films and the children watch them after which they start acting what they have seen and this has affected the child’s psyche negatively. No doubt, the emergence of information communication technology has made students in calculation-based courses like Mathematics to be lazy and more dependant on calculator. Most mathematics students can no longer do simple arithmetic without consulting the calculator and the internet etc.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study attempts to examine the effect of information communications technology (ICT) on the performance of students in Mathematics at the secondary school level.
The objectives of the study include to:
- Examine whether information communication technology has influence on students’ behaviour.
- Assess whether there is a relationship between information communication technology and students’ academic achievements.
- Determine whether there is relationship between ICT utilization and students’ overall academic performance in schools.
- Evaluate whether students’ perception of information communication technology differ from their teachers’.
- Assess whether secondary school students utilize ICT often.
- Evaluate the socio-economic status of students who often use information communication technology (ICT) in their educational career.
- Determine whether there is gender difference in the use of ICT among secondary school students.
- To differentiate between the academic performance of students who use ICT and those who do not.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in this study:
- To what extent can the influence of information communication technology on students’ learning behaviour be examined?
- Is there any relationship between information communication technology usage and students’ academic achievement?
- Will there be any significant relationship between information communication technology usage and students’ study habit?
- Will the perception of students on information communication technology significantly differ from that of their teachers?
- Will there be any significant difference between the academic performance of students who used ICT and those who do did not?
- Do secondary school students use information communication technology more often than their primary school counterparts?
- Do students from high socio-economic homes use ICT often than their counterparts from low-socio-economic homes?
- Is there any gender difference in the use of information communication technology among secondary school students?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The undermentioned hypotheses would be tested in this study.
- There will be no significant relationship between information communication technology and students’ learning behaviour.
- There will be no significant relationship between information communication technology and students academic achievement.
- There will be no significant difference between the perception of students on information communication technology from that of their teachers.
- There will be no significant gender difference in the academic performance of students based on the use of information communication technology (ICT).
- There will be no significant difference between the academic performance of students who frequently used ICT and those who do not.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following:
Students: Students would benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because it would help them to be able to be more aware of the information communication technology in the school. This study will enable students to get more involved in the utilization of information communication technology due to the benefits derivable from it.
Teachers: They would find this study beneficial because with the findings and recommendations of this study, teachers would avail themselves of the opportunity to get involved in the use of information communication technology because of the numerous benefits that can be derived from it. With the study also, information communication technology and their functions.
Family: Parents would benefit from this study because it would enable them to know the benefits their children/wards derived from using the information communication technology in their academic work or activities. Parents themselves, will avail themselves of the opportunity of knowing the importance of information communication technology through this study and those who do not use information communication technology would start to use it as it is beneficial to all human activities.
The School Authority: This study would assist the school authority to be able to know more about information communication technology and its functions especially in the life of the full-time student. The recommendations of this study would enable the school authority to expand its policy on the availability and usage of information communication technology in the school system in Nigeria.
The Society: The society would benefit from this study, because it will assist the society to be information communication technology friendly due to the advantages it has. This study will afford the society to know more about information communication technology and its functions in the world today.
Scope of the Study
This study covered the effect of Information Communication Technology (ICT) on students’ academic performance in mathematics in selected secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Operational terms were defined in this study thus:
Information technology – This refers to the application of scientific knowledge. Information communication technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictoal, textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication.
Utilization – Putting something in use.
Assessment – This refers to the act of observing the values of amount at which something is calculated, a judgment or opinion.
Evaluation – To calculate the value or degree of something.
Accessible – This refers to get or get into, to or at. Easily persuaded or influenced.
Acquisition – The act of getting something or someone.
Message – A broken or written piece of information passed from one person to another; the important or central idea etc.