STAFF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL IN LAGOS STATE
The study examined staff training and teachers’ productivity in selected secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. The descriptive research survey was used in order to assess the opinions of the selected respondents using the questionnaire and the sampling techniques. A total of one hundred and fifty respondents were selected comprising 75 males and 75 females and used in the study to represent the entire population of the study. Three null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlational Coefficient statistical tools at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the analyses, the following results emerged: ICT based training programmes, training on teaching methodology, Classroom management, items and test writing are some of the training programmes that are available for secondary school teachers; Teachers need to be trained because training promotes the acquisition of skills and knowledge or attitudes that are required to meet organizational and individual goals; teachers have positive perceptions towards continuing training in the service; there is a significant relationship between quality training of teachers in terms of writing and effective assessment, there is a significant relationship between training methodology and teachers effective in classroom management, and there is a significant relationship between teachers’ training and students’ excellent performance. On the basis of the findings, relevant recommendations were drawn for the study.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
1.8 Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Concept of training and professionalism 10
2.2 The Concept of Human Resources Management 14
2.3 Importance of Human Resources Management 16
2.4 Types of Training and Teacher Development Techniques 18
2.5 The assumed outcomes of Training and Teacher Development
(Changes in skill, attitude and knowledge) 20
2.6 Staff Development and their Productivity 31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 Research Design 35
3.2 Population of the Study 35
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 37
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 40
3.5 Validity of the Instrument 40
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 40
3.6 Administration of the Instrument 41
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 41
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 42
4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Descriptive Analyses of Teachers’ Biographic Data 42
4.3 Analyses of the Research Questions 46
4.4 Test of Hypotheses 51
4.5 Summary of Findings 54
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 55
5.1 Introduction 55
5.2 Summary of the Study 55
5.3 Discussion of Findings 57
5.4 Implication of Findings 60
5.5 Conclusion 61
5.6 Recommendations 62
1.1 Background to the Study
Training has been defined as “an organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and or skills for a definite purpose”. It is a process for equipping the employee particularly the non-management employee with specific skills e.g. technical skills like plumbing, electrical wiring, repairing, artistic skills, clerical and typing skills that would enable them to improve on their performances and overall efficiency (Banjoko, 2001).
Asobie (2002), states that the objective of training is to enable employees to perform his/her job in such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational requirements.
Ayodele (2003) states that, for the fact that ours is a world that is currently undergoing rapid changes particularly in the area of skill obsolescence and technological capability, training is not exclusively reserved for newly employed staff but also for the old employees as well. It is therefore, for the purpose of enhancing individual performance that training and development should be made a continuous process that should last through an employees entire working life. Anyanwu (2004) affirms that because low and middle level employees need to adapt to new skills and technologies, while managers and top management personnel need deeper knowledge and understanding of their jobs, the jobs of others, a good understanding of where and how their jobs fit into the wider organisation pattern, an understanding of government and societal constraints, and a sensitive social awareness of the environment within which organisation or school operates.
For jobs like teaching that requires complex and diverse range of skills and knowledge, a period of apprenticeship training is usually required. For example, in technical jobs such as carpentry, plumbing, printing, welding, engraving, tool making, and other jobs that require long period of practice and experience, apprenticeship programmes are necessary if the trainee is to fully grasp or understand the intricacies and complexities of the job. Besides, since training takes place over an extended period of time, the distributed learning necessary to master such skills is able to take place. In addition, when apprenticeship programmes or training is well planned and operated, it permits the integration of the best features of on-the-job training and off-the-job training. It gives the apprentice an opportunity to earn something while learning (Banjoko, 2001).
Constant training or organisation of seminars, workshops and other courses for teachers would improve to a great extent, the effectiveness and efficiency of teachers’ productivity in the school environment. Teachers occupy a central position in harnessing the administrative and material resources necessary to blend with learners (students). According to Nkemakolam (2005), a close look at the Nigerian schools, especially the public schools, one would find out that there exists a shortage of technical teachers in many primary and secondary schools. This is largely due to lack of job satisfaction as a result of poor conditions of service, lack of motivation, ineffectiveness on the job due to non-further training etc. In any case, this affects students’ academic performance.
Onuoha and Uzodinma (2000), state that once an organization has employed those it considered qualified, suitable and competent to perform those jobs for which they were hired, it must embark on an effective training and development programme that is necessary to enhance the productive capabilities of the newly hired employees, while it also embarks on training and retratining the old workers or employees in order to maximize their productivity.
Training of staff is important in the following ways: to remove performance deficiency; to match the employees’ abilities with the job requirements and organizational needs; to enhance organizational viability and the transformation process, to cope with the new technological advancement; to improve quality and quantity of work; to improve productivity and efficiency; to help staff cope with increased organizational complexity resulting from increased mechanization automation. Training, sometimes, may be undertaken to enhance employees’ self-esteem; to boost staff morale and thereby improve organisational climate, especially, in the school (Munonye, 2006).
For teachers to maximize their potentials or exhibit maximum effectiveness in their duties in the school system, constant staff training and development programmes must be put in place and these programmes must be geared towards the enhancement and improvement of teachers work performance which will also enhance the academic performance of students in the school environment.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Training is very essential in the creation of high productivity of staff, especially teachers in the school system. When teachers are not trained, it brings about emptiness in teaching and learning process. Non-trained teachers in the school are not only cheats, they are not helping the school system to grow and develop. People who teach in the school without having the required qualifications, are the causes of low standard of education and low students’ academic performance (Ayo, 2003).
The school system in Nigeria, has the problem of untrained teachers who have greatly infiltrated into the teaching profession, because they think that teaching is an all-comers’ job. They think that everyone knows how to teach, but they forget that not everyone is trained to teach. Untrained and inexperience teachers lack the mastery of content (what to teach), the methodology (how to teach). Any teachers who do not possess the mastery of both what to teach and how to teach cannot be said to be a teacher in the first place. Untrained and teachers therefore, lack the skills and the capabilities to achieve the goods in teaching and learning process. It is this belief that the researcher is motivated to find out the extent to which training influence teachers development and their job performance in secondary school.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine the teachers’ training and work performance in selected secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Other objectives of the study include:
(1) To find out what types of training programmes are available for teachers in schools
(2) To evaluate the training needs of teachers in the school.
(3) To differentiate the productivity of male and female teachers in the school.
(4) To find out whether there is a relationship between training of teachers and academic performance of students in the school.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be raised in this study:
- What types of training programmes are available for secondary teachers in Lagos State?
- Why do teachers need to be trained?
- Will there be any relationship between training of teachers and academic performance of students in the school?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study:
1. There is no significant relationship between quality training of teachers in terms of writing and effective assessment.
2. There is no significant relationship between training methodology and teachers effective in classroom management
3. There is no significant relationship between teachers’ training and students’ excellent performance
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following individuals in many ways:
- Principals: This study will help managers of the school system, benefit from the findings and recommendations made by the researcher. This is because, the principals would be able to understand the essence of maintaining a conducive atmosphere in the school. It is important that principals maintain good relationship with their teachers and students so that they will be able to have good school climate running in the school for the overall maximization of high productivity.
- Teachers: They will benefit from this study because it will enable them to be able to know more about the essence of having good principal – teacher relationships in the school, and how bad principal – teacher relationship can affect the school atmosphere badly. This is because nothing works in an organization or school where there is rancour and bad blood amongst principals, teachers and school community or even students and parents. For the school to achieve its goals and objectives, it must operate on good climate or cordial culture which promote high productivity.
- 3. Parents: Parents being one of the important stakeholders in the school system, ought to be in good relationship with the principals, the teachers and all that are in the school. Therefore, assisting parents to be able to be well informed on the importance of having their children in schools where there is good relationship among the school personnel and schools where is provision of infrastructures and other amenities in the school.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will cover the examination of the staff training and development of school personnel in selected secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined thus:
Employee Behaviour: Refers to manners, moral conduct and treatment shown to or towards management
Workers’ Productivity: This has to do with the total output or result of work obtainable from the input of employees in any organisation. In other words, it is the total production level of all the workers in a company, industries, schools and other parastatals within the private and public sectors.
Job fulfillment: This is the final result an organization intends to see from the employees after being motivated.
Training: This means training somebody for something in order to be somebody or something; the act of giving teaching and practice to an individual or a worker in order to bring to a directed standard of behaviour, efficiency or physical condition.
Staff Training and Development: Training and development are processes for equipping the employees particularly the non-managerial employees with specific skills e.g. technical skills such as plumbing, electrical, wiring, repairing, artistic skills, clerical and typing skills that could enable them to improve on their performances and overall efficiency. Adamson and Adamson (2000) state that the objective of training and development on the job is to enable an employee to perform his job in such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational requirements.