MOTIVATION; A TOOL FOR EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY
Employees are a company’s livelihood. How they feel about the work they are doing and the results received from that work directly impact on organisation’s performance and ultimately is stability. An unstable organization ultimately underperforms. The study had the following objectives; (to establish the relationship between motivation and higher productivity among workers, to find out any relationship between motivational factors and work of staff and to determine how incentives influence workers approach to work and their performance). To achieve these goals, a questionnaire was designed based on the objectives. The finding of this study revealed that alongside monetary incentives, another key factor in motivating employees is to involve them in the process aimed at attaining organizational effectiveness because without their co-operation and support a great deal of managerial energy may be wasted. The study concluded that efforts should be aimed at motivating staff of all level in order to increase productivity for higher returns.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 Definition of Terms and Concepts
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 The Human Resource Management Paradigm
2.3 Motivation Theory
2.4 McGregor Theory X and Theory Y: Vroom and Deci: 1970
2.5 Critics of McGregor Theory X and Theory Y
2.6 Abraham Harold Maslow’s Theory of Need: Armstrong: 2001
2.7 Application of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need to Management: Boeree: 2006
2.8 Critics of Maslow’s Hierarchy of need Theory
2.9 Frederick Herzberg’s Hygiene and Motivational Factors Theory: Vroom and Deci: 1970
2.10 Application of Herzberg’s Theory of Hygiene and Motivational Factors
2.11 Critics of Herzberg’s Theory of Hygiene and Motivational Factors
2.12 Case Studies on Motivation
2.13 Conceptual Framework
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Data Collection
3.4 Personal Interview
3.5 Population of Study
3.6 The Sample Size
3.7 Data Analysis Technique
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 Data Analysis and Interpretation
4.3 Response of respondents to the problem areas
4.4 Analysis of the Main Data Drawn From Research Questions
4.5 Discussion of findings
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
5.2 A Summary of findings
5.3 Importance/ Implication of findings
1.1. Background of the Study
It is widely recognized in the human resource literature that promotion of the motivation of workers in both private and public organisations leads to a higher quality of human resources and optimum performance. Consensus is also growing among managers about the significance of combining good human resource performance approaches on motivation incentives to encourage good performance. Local Government Education Authority (Ajeromi-Ifelodun) a re-known government organisation is not an exception and the notion of workers motivation and good performance outcomes is not new. As the organisation seeks to improve its workers performance severe challenges exist to achieve the overall objective of the organisation to extend adequate motivational incentives to its entire population.
Motivation theory can help us to consider the different investments which can be made in people. Investment in workers through motivational measures are made today with the hope of future benefits for an organisation. “In a world characterised by competition, customer focus and the need for speed and flexibility, in order to get the results you want, you still have to depend on your people to carry the day” (Storey, 2001:9). This therefore makes it a necessity to employ “talented individuals, who need to be developed, motivated, rewarded and provided with the organisational cultures and work processes that will make them to be successful” (Hay group, 2000 in Storey, 2001: 9).
The study makes a critical analysis of motivation and workers performance in Local Government Education Authority and identifies several motivation incentives that can help boost better performance. Its central question is: Why are workers not performing as expected? Its assumption is that qualified and skilled workers have assumed their rightful positions based on the job description and specification but their performance is not satisfactory. The research examines whether this is due to limited or inadequate motivation measures to induce good performance.
In order to do this analysis, this research used a conceptual framework that relates the key concepts of intrinsic, extrinsic motivators and performance management approaches to work and organisational performance. It also engaged the use of three motivation theories in its theoretical framework.
1.2. Statement of the Study
This study had its focus on motivational measures and the civil servants in Local Government Education Authority is located at Ajeromi Ifelodun (Local Government), handling affairs of Primary and Junior Secondary school Teaching and Non-teaching Staff in that locality.
Out of a total of approximately 72 members of staff 40 were made to respond to the questionnaires. The success or failure of any organisation depends greatly on the type of human resources it has (Mabonga: 2000). Human resources translate all other resources in an organisation into visible products (Mabonga: 2000). Bearing that in mind it is important that organisations pay extra attention to their workers in order to attain optimum efficiency and effectiveness at the workplace.
With the current state of affairs in the nation in general as relating to the workforce motivation makes it necessary to temper this optimism with caution. “The workers are on strike again.” Over what? “They are asking for another pay rise after the one granted just a few months ago.” What more do they want? These statements and comments and many similar ones are reported frequently in the news and are commented upon by watchers of development in various industry and service organisations. The questions are often asked as to what workers in general want from their employers. Can there be an end to the clamour for increases in wages? Why do workers work and what induces them to give of their best? Money only plays the role of common denominator of all things. There is a general notion that if only government can identify other things that can motivate the workforce apart from money, perhaps there will be a dramatic reduction in the demand by workers for pay rises. Less time will be spent on the annual ritual of management/workers union negotiation meetings (Badu, 2010).
The general problem inherent in the organisational set up is low salaries, irregular promotional structure, lack of infrastructures and lack of recognition of workers achievements. All these tend to dampen workers morale and consequently affect their performance. The aim of this research therefore is to find out the type of incentive package that needs to be given to Workers of and whether workers, given the right incentives other than money can put in their best to contribute to the productivity and growth of the organisations to achieve the set objectives.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to identify obstacles hindering workers performance, in Local Government Education Authority. The specific objectives are:
- To establish which motivational measures are currently in place and how effective are these.
- To establish whether a positive relationship exists between motivational measures and improved performance.
- To establish ways to improve the performance and motivation of workers.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher formulates the following questions to serve as a guide to the study. They are as follows:
- What are the reasons for either under or over performance in Local Government Education Authority?
- What motivation measures are currently in place and to what extend do they motivate the staff?
- What alternative motivational measures can be identified in order to ensure improvement in workers performance in Local Government Education Authority?
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
The statistical influence will be tested on the following:
- There is no significant difference between employee motivation and their performance on the job.
- There is no significant relationship between employees’ productivity and their levels of motivation.
1.6. Significance of the Study
- The findings from this study will help to highlight those areas where there are problems among staff and thus will be of great benefit to the management of organizations and policy makers.
- The results of this study would hopefully be significant in the sense that it would enable both the management and the labour union to better understand how the various incentive packages could be harnessed to inspire staff to increase and sustain productivity.
- The findings from this study would help to further highlight the likely problems of frustrations and how motivation can be used to either reduce or eliminate these problems amongst staff of the organisation.
1.7. Scope of the Study
The scope of this study will be limited to Local Government Education Authority located along Apapa Oshodi express way Oto Whalf, Ajeromi-Ifelodun, Lagos State. Local Government Education Authority Ajeromi-Ifelodun is a district office under the umbrella of Lagos State Universal Basic Education Board (LSUBEB). The district is handling the affairs of Primary and Junior Secondary school of Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff in Ajeromi-Ifelodun. It has a workforce of 72 made up of 1 education secretary, 15 senior staff and 56 junior staff.
The focus of this study is "Motivation' a tool for employee performance and productivity" in the organization. Data for this study are obtained from responses from the workers of the organisation through questionnaire method.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In studies of this nature, time and finance have often posed much limitation especially in the production and distribution of questionnaires. Lack of co-operation by the respondents resulted in low response, wrong information and return of incomplete questionnaires.
1.9 Definition of Terms and Concepts
Motivation: This is defined as an encouragement in the form of rewards expected or obtained that influenced an employee or an individual to put more on the work activities willingly and enthusiastically.
Motive: This is internal state of disequilibrium, which cause individual to pursue certain course of action in an effort to regain internal equilibrium.
Production: This is the rate of output to input in other words, it is the degree to which an actual meets with the expected standard performance.
Reward: These are gains that come as a result of performing a duty. It can either be expected or obtained.
Incentives: These are payments made to employees over and above their basic pay in order to encourage them to increase output. The payment is paid or made on the result achieved.