ICT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS.

CHAPTER 1: Introduction

 

Information Communication Technology according to Unagha (2006) encompasses computer and telecommunication. It is concerned with the technology used in handling, acquiring, processing, storing and dissemination of information. Similarly, Oxford Advanced Learners‘Dictionary sees ICT as electronic media used in processing, analyzing, storing and sending out information. Evey et al (2010) observed that ICT is innovative device that can carry out such functions as receiving, storing, computing, analyzing, transmitting and retrieving information presented to them and allowing for one-to-one or copyright group communication among humans. Obashoro (2007) identified ICT infrastructure to include multi-media CD-ROMs, MP3 players, websites, discussion boards, emails, computer-aided assessments, learning management software, blogs, etc. In the same vein, Folorunso, Longe and Ijere (2003) identified ICT infrastructure to include internet, World Wide Web (www), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), Protocols, Content Management and Meta Data Standard (MDS).

 

 

 

 

 

1.1            Background of the Study

Improving the quality of education is a priority for most developing countries. Policymakers usually agree that such improvements could lead to structural shifts in productivity and boost long-term economic growth. Governments face the challenge of identifying efficient ways to use their scarce resources and raise the quality of education. The provision of information and communications technology (ICT) to schools and its use for educational purposes can increase student achievement in at least two ways. First, the availability of ICT in the classroom shifts the level of educational inputs and could thus affect students’ learning outcomes. Second, exposure to ICT may increase the cognitive abilities of students, allowing them to learn faster. Computer-aided instruction may be more relevant in a context in which teacher quality is poor, which is the case in most developing countries. Previous studies have shown that programs that provide computer-aided mathematics instruction can positively influence students’ test scores for example, Barrow et al. (2009) found that an instructional computer program for pre-algebra and algebra in the United States had a positive effect on test scores (about 0.17 of a standard deviation). Similarly, Banerjee et al. (2005) found that computer-assisted mathematics instruction raised mathematics scores of fourth-grade students in Vadodara, India (at least in the short run). Other studies have found little or no effect. Using credible identification strategies, Leuven et al. (2007), Goolsbee and Guryan (2006), Angrist and Lavy (2002), and Rouse and Krueger (2004) found no evidence that the use of computers and software had a positive impact on student achievement. Additional research is needed to understand the circumstances under which the provision of ICT can have a positive impact on student learning outcomes. The research therefore seek to provide an appraisal of ict and academic performance of private primary school pupils

 

1.2            Statement of the Problem

According to a United Nations report (1999) ICTs cover Internet service provision, telecommunications equipment and services, information technology equipment and services, media and broadcasting, libraries and documentation centres, commercial information providers, network-based information services,

and other related information and communication activities. According to UNESCO (2002) information and communication technology (ICT) may be regarded as the combination of ‘Informatics technology’ with other related technology, specifically communication technology. The various kinds of ICT products available and having relevance to education, such as teleconferencing, email, audio conferencing, television lessons, radio broadcasts, interactive radio counseling, interactive voice response system, audiocassettes and CD ROMs etc have been used in education for different purposes (Sharma, 2003; Sanyal, 2001; Bhattacharya and Sharma, 2007)..

The field of education has been affected by ICTs, which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning, and research (Yusuf, 2005). A great deal of research has proven the benefits to the quality of education (Al-Ansari, 2006). ICTs have the potential to innovate, accelerate, enrich, and deepen skills, to motivate and engage students, to help relate school experience to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrow's workers, as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change (Davis and Tearle, 1999; Lemke and Coughlin, 1998; cited by Yusuf, 2005)

There are many forces and factors that pose as challenges and problems to

Inhibit effective diffusion of ICTs in private primary schools

(Tella, 2007) identified difficulty in motivating faculty, inadequate equipment,  lack of ICT policy, poor attitude of staff, inadequate computers, and problem of connectivity to off-campus students. Some inhibitors identified for investigation at Uniport by Okorie, Agabi and Uche (2005, p. 33) included lack of computer or ICT centre, inadequate facilities/equipment at the ICT centre, irregular power supply, Information Communication Technologies in the management of Education, absence of alternative source of power supply, lack of computer knowledge, expensive nature of ICT facilities, and lack of willpower by management to embrace ICT-revolution. Consequently the problem confronting this research is to investigate Ict and academic performance of primary school pupils.

 

 

1.3            Objective of the Study

To provide an appraisal of Ict and academic performance of primary school pupils.

 

1.4            Research Questions

1 What is the nature of ICT?

2       What is the impact of ICT on academic performance of primary school pupil.

 

 

1.5            Significance of the Study

To provide an assessment of the impact of ICT on the academic performance of primary school pupil.

 

 

1.6            Statement of Hypothesis

Ho ICT has no significant impact on academic performance of primary school pupil.

 

Hi ICT has significant impact on the academic performance of primary school pupil.

 

 

1.7            Scope  of the Study

The research focuses on the appraisal of ICT and academic performance of primary school pupil.

 

1.8            Definition of Terms

MIS DEFINED

MIS implies both the technique, the process, as well as the structure concerned with systemic, accurate and speedy organization and control of relevant signals, data or messages from the different parts and environment of an activity unit, through appropriate collection, editing, analysis, display, storage and retrieval of signals or messages in manners that would be useful for management decision-making

 

ICT DEFINED

 According to a United Nations report (1999) ICTs cover Internet service provision, telecommunications equipment and services, information technology equipment and services, media and broadcasting, libraries and documentation centres, commercial information providers, network-based information services,

 

Academic Performance

All students are required to maintain a satisfactory academic record and meet the obligations of the courses in which they are enrolled. Failure to do so will be dealt with as the Faculty and its designated Boards shall determine. In all cases, midyear grades in full year courses will be considered along with all other grades in the calculations for minimum requirements and satisfactory records.

Minimum Requirements

To meet the minimum academic requirements in any term, a student may have at most one failing grade, which may not be accompanied by another unsatisfactory grade; and at least two satisfactory grades, one of which must be a letter grade in an FAS course taken for degree credit (or in a course taken by cross-registration and counted toward concentration or UTEP requirements). A student who fails to meet the minimum requirements ordinarily will be required to withdraw for two terms, whether or not his or her previous record was unsatisfactory.

Satisfactory and Unsatisfactory Academic Records

The requirements for a satisfactory academic record are satisfactory grades in all courses, and at least one letter grade in an FAS course taken for degree credit (or in a course taken by cross-registration and counted toward concentration or UTEP requirements). However for freshmen in their first term, an academic record will be considered satisfactory if all grades are passing, at most one grade is unsatisfactory, and at least one grade is a satisfactory letter grade. A student whose record is unsatisfactory is ordinarily placed on probation. A student with two consecutive unsatisfactory records ordinarily will be required to withdraw for two terms.

Exclusion from a Course

A student who neglects any course may, after written warning by the instructor, be excluded from the course by the instructor with the approval of the Administrative Board. The warning should specify the steps the student must take in order to be allowed to continue in the course. Exclusion from a course is equivalent in all respects to failing it and in and of itself makes the student’s record for the term unsatisfactory. A notation of EXLD (excluded) on the transcript indicates that the student was not permitted to continue in the course and received no credit. A student may not withdraw from a course from which he or she has been excluded. Students excluded from a course are denied any right to further course evaluation, including final and makeup examinations.

Submission of Written Work

Students are responsible for ensuring that required written course work is submitted and received on time. Written work should not be left in open mailboxes or other unattended places but rather given personally and directly to the head of the course or to a responsible person acting on his or her behalf. Papers that are mailed to instructors should be sent by certified mail, and a receipt of delivery should be requested from the Postal Service. The student should keep both the postal receipt and a copy of the paper. If work is submitted electronically, students are responsible for confirming receipt.

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