This research work evaluates the impact of non-formal system of coaching classes on the performance of Senior Secondary chemistry students in examinations. Four research questions guided the study. The study adopted the Ex-Post Facto and descriptive survey research designs. The sample comprised Senior Secondary Chemistry graduates in four coaching colleges in Mushin Local Government Area in Lagos state. Data were generated using the open form questionnaire instrument. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages. The results showed that there is major significant difference between the performance of Senior Secondary Chemistry students that attended coaching classes and those that didn’t in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination of West African Examination Council(WAEC) and National Examinations Council(NECO). The results also showed that majority of chemistry students who did well in the examination attended coaching classes. The results further showed that coaching classes enhanced the performance of chemistry students generally in their science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Biology) including English Language and Mathematics. In order to improve the performance of Senior secondary chemistry students in examinations, it was recommended that science educators and stakeholders should begin to employ the non-formal system of coaching classes as tool in improving their achievements in chemistry. The study concludes that the non-formal system of coaching classes should be encouraged to substantiate the learning experience in the formal system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS 4
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 5
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 5
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 6
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 INTRODUCTION 9
2.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COACHING PROCESS 11
2.2 HISTORICAL SUMMARY 17
2.3 THE COACHING CLASS 21
2.4 THE NATURE OF COACHING 22
2.5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEARNING TYPES AND COACHING 26
2.6 SUMMARY 30
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN
3.0 INTRODUCTION 32
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 32
3.2 POPULATION 33
3.3 SAMPLE PROCEDURE AND SAMPLE TECHNIQUE 33
3.4 INSTRUMENTATION 33
3.5 DATA COLLECTION 34
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS 34
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
4.0 INTRODUCTION 35
4.1 DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS 41
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY
5.0 INTRODUCTION 42
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 42
5.2 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS 43
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 44
5.4 CONCLUSION 46
APPENDIX I 51
APPENDIX II 52
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
In recent time there has been a decline in the performance of science students in science subjects such as physics, Chemistry and Biology. This is due to so many factors such as lack of laboratory facilities in most of our secondary schools, incompetent science teachers, and lack of instructional materials for learning and so on. The government has made several efforts within the formal system of learning to salvage the situation but all proved abortive. However, research reveals the non-formal system can proffer solution to this lingering situation if it is properly harnessed and structured. There are various coaching colleges that have been making tremendous impact in grooming students for success in examinations. Formal education has been widely recognized as dynamic instrument of change socially, politically, economically, scientifically and technologically. Until late sixties, formal secondary education was the general terminal point in Nigerian education system and secondary school was therefore the major source of man power. Today despite an increase in the number of universities, secondary education remains the terminal point for many who are unable to secure admission to pursue a degree course in and of pure sciences especially chemistry due to poor performance at ordinary level. Academic performance as a terminology remains the main determinant of an individual student success in formal education measured directly through reports, examination ratings, and it is also predictable.
The importance of chemistry cannot be overemphasized as it is the base of all environmental professions, all science students must learn and pass it at secondary school level before they can advance into the university (Kolawole and Ilugbusi 2007). Before any science student could be admitted to study chemistry in any Nigerian university, he/she must satisfy a minimum entry grade.
Before transition into this higher institute of learning, the students will be evaluated. Evaluation is the passing of decision or judgement on a particular trait in accordance with a test which validly and reliably measures the presence of that trait.(Kpolovie, 2002, Ololube, 2008). Evaluation involves both quantitative and qualitative description of a pupils’ behavior, and the passing of value judgement concerning the desirability of that behavior (Harbor-Peters 1991). Since evaluation remains indispensable in any academic programme, teaching and instructional duty are rendered incomplete or lacking until an evaluation of the outcome of instruction has been performed. Evaluation agencies which also act as examining bodies are tasked with maintaining a common standard in the development and administration of public examinations.
According to Nworgu (1992) evaluation agencies were set up to promote education, to coordinate educational programmes, and to control and monitor the quality of education in educational institutions, the essence of which is the organization of public examinations so as to provide uniform standards to all test takers, irrespective of the type or method of instruction they have received. Some of these examination bodies in Nigeria include the West African Examinations Council (WAEC), the National Examination Council (NECO), the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB), and the National business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB). The assemblage of subject examinations conducted by these examining bodies is known as the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination(SSCE) and serves as an end –of- course evaluation for all secondary school graduates. The purpose of this examination is to ascertain to what degree students in a particular course have achieved the course or educational objectives (Offor 2001).
The purpose of this work is to examine the impact of coaching colleges on the performance of Chemistry students during the May/June Internal Exams.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The decline in the performance of students in science subjects especially Chemistry in the May/June Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) is a major concern in the Nigeria educational system. The performance of candidates in chemistry examinations in recent years has been a great concern to the society. In fact, the low level of chemistry attainment of students at every segment of educational system in the country has given chemistry teachers, parents and the government a high level of worry as it is reflected in the work of ( Umoinyang 1997; Yoloye, 1999; David-Osuagwu, Anemelu and Onyeozili, 2000; Okpala and Umoinyang, 2001 and okafor, 2002).
Therefore this research work focuses on how the performance of chemistry students has been improved in the May/June Examinations through the non-formal system of coaching classes.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of coaching classes on the performance of chemistry students in internal examinations (SSCE).The objectives of the study include:
- identify senior Secondary chemistry graduate students that attended coaching classes before their examinations
- identify Senior secondary School graduates that did not attend coaching classes before their examinations
- compare the performance of the above two groups
- describe if there is a any statistical difference in their performance in May/June examination
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were generated for the purpose of this study:
- What are the performances of Senior Secondary School graduate chemistry students that attended coaching classes?
- What are the performances of Senior Secondary graduate chemistry students that did not attend coaching classes
- Is there any statistical significant relationship between secondary school graduate chemistry students that attended coaching classes and those that did not?
- To what extent will exposure to coaching classes improve the performance of senior Secondary students in Chemistry?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The hypothesis of this research design is that coaching classes help in improving the performance of chemistry students in examinations. The goal of the study is to find out if a relationship exists between the performance of students in chemistry and coaching. The population for this study will be limited to only Senior Secondary school graduates in four coaching centres in Lagos State. Fifty questionnaires were generated and distributed through random selection to students in this four coaching centres to evaluate their performances and draw necessary conclusions on the study.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research work will help to ascertain through concrete facts the impact of coaching classes in the achievement of chemistry students in internal and external examinations and thereby promoting the value and acceptability of coaching classes in the Nigeria educational system. It will open the eyes of students and parents to the importance of being exposed to different learning experiences and tutelage. It will also help stakeholders in the educational system to organize after school programs that will help the performance of Secondary school students in their examinations. Some local governments in Lagos are already adopting this system as part of their agenda to contribute to the development of learning and achievement in the educational system. An example is the Mushin Local government.
The study will also science educators to begin to see the need to consider the non-formal educational as a tool for enhancing students’ achievement in Chemistry.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
EVALUATION: Evaluation in an educational setting is the process whereby we seek evidence that the learning experiences we have designed for students are effective. It is a tool for ascertaining if learning has taken place.
COACHINGCLASSES: This is a non-formal system of education which involves teaching, training, instructing, solution-focused, result-oriented and systematic process that facilitates the enhancement of academic performance of students.
PERFORMANCE: This is a measure of the achievement of the students’ learning experience through evaluation to ascertain if learning as truly taking place
CHEMISTRY: This is a branch of science that studies the nature, properties and composition of matter.