APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM AND INCREASE IN PERSONNEL SERVICES OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS IN DISTRICT IV, LAGOS STATE
The study examined the influence of apprenticeship on the productivity of technical teachers in selected secondary schools in Lagos State. Specifically, the study sets out to investigate the influence of staff training programmes on learning achievement of students and apprenticeship impact on technical teachers’ productivity. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Relevant literatures were reviewed among which are concept of apprenticeship and development and identifying training needs. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study and the population were technical teachers in secondary schools in Mainland Local Education District III area of Lagos State. Stratified random technique was used to get 120 technical teachers from six schools in the district. Questionnaire was used for data collection, which was validated and its reliability ascertained. The data collected were analysed using t-test method of statistics analysis. The major findings of the study are: apprenticeship influences technical teachers’ productivity in secondary schools; differences exists between the productivity of technical teachers who are exposed to training and those who are not and also that difference exists between the orientation of experienced teachers as a result of exposure to training and those inexperienced. The study concluded by recommending among others that adequate training should be given for all stakeholders in the educational institutions so as to enable efficient discharge of duties.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 Introduction/Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study 8
1.9 Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Concept of Apprenticeship and Development 12
2.3 Relationship between Training and Employee Development 15
2.4 Identifying Training Needs 17
2.5 Factors that affect the Performance of the Technical Teachers 19
2.6 The assumed outcomes of Training and Teacher Development
(Changes in skill, attitude and knowledge) 24
2.7 Types of Training and Teacher Development Techniques 25
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 39
1.0 Introduction 39
1.1 Research Design 39
1.2 Population of the Study 40
1.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 40
1.4 Research Instrument 40
1.5 Validity of Instrument 40
1.6 Reliability of Instrument 41
1.7 Procedure for Data Collection 41
1.8 Data Analysis Procedure 41
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis and Presentation of Results 42
1.1 Introduction 42
1.2 Descriptive Analysis of Bio-Data of Respondents 42
1.3 Hypotheses Testing 46
1.4 Summary of the Finding 50
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 51
5.1 Introduction 51
5.2 Summary of the Study 51
5.3 Conclusions 52
5.4 Recommendations 53
1.1 Background to the Study
Training has been defined as “an organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and or skills for a definite purpose”. It is a process for equipping the employee particularly the non-management employee with specific skills e.g. technical skills like plumbing, electrical wiring, repairing, artistic skills, clerical and typing skills that would enable them to improve on their performances and overall efficiency.
Gardner (1993), states that the objective of training is to enable employees to perform his/her job in such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational requirements.
According to Adeleke (1990), for the fact that ours is a world that is currently undergoing rapid changes particularly in the area of skill obsolescence and technological capability, training is not exclusively reserved for newly employed staff but also for the old employees as well. It is therefore, for the purpose of enhancing individual performance that training and development should be made a continuous process that should last through an employees entire working life. This is because low and middle level employees need to adapt to new skills and technologies, while managers and top management personnel need deeper knowledge and understanding of their jobs, the jobs of others, a good understanding of where and how their jobs fit into the wider organisation pattern, an understanding of government and societal constraints, and a sensitive social awareness of the environment within which organisation or school operates (Adamson, 1994).
For jobs like teaching that requires complex and diverse range of skills and knowledge, a period of apprenticeship training is usually required. For example, in technical jobs such as carpentry, plumbing, printing, welding, engraving, tool making, and other jobs that require long period of practice and experience, apprenticeship programmes are necessary if the trainee is to fully grasp or understand the intricacies and complexities of the job. Besides, since training takes place over an extended period range of skills and knowledge, a period of apprenticeship training is usually required, for example, in technical jobs such as carpentry, plumbing, printing, welding, engraving, tool making, and other jobs that require long period of practice and experience, apprenticeship programmes are necessary if the trainee is to fully grasp or understand the intricacies and complexities of the job. Besides, since training takes place over an extended period of time, the distributed learning necessary to master such skills is able to take place. In addition, when apprenticeship programmes or training is well planned and operated, it permits the integration of the best features of on-the-job training and off-the-job training. It gives the apprentice an opportunity to earn something while learning, Banjoko (1996).
Ejiogu (1985) and Kerllenger (1981) are of the opinion that constant training or organisation of seminars, workshops and other courses for technical teachers would improve to a great extent, the effectiveness and efficiency of teachers’ productivity in the school environment. Teachers occupy a central position in harnessing the administrative and material resources necessary to blend with learners (students). A close look at the Nigerian schools, especially the public schools, one would find out that there exists a shortage of technical teachers in many primary and secondary schools. This is largely due to lack of job satisfaction as a result of poor conditions of service, lack of motivation, ineffectiveness on the job due to non-further training etc. In any case, this affects students’ academic performance (Gist, 1999).
According to Ejiogu (1996), for technical teachers to maximize their potentials or exhibit maximum effectiveness in their duties in the school system, constant staff training and development programmes must be put in place and these programmes must be geared towards the enhancement and improvement of teachers work performance which will also enhance the academic performance of students in the school environment.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
No doubt, staff development, especially the technical teachers, complements the learning achievement of the students in a given school system. It also increases the capacity utilization of manpower in an organization. Lack of apprenticeship or training, result to set back in learning, low productivity and inefficiency on the job.
In Nigeria today, both the private and public schools are bedevilled by the poor or inadequate staff development programmes. For example, the non-training of staff (the technical and non technical teachers, teaching and non teaching staff) in our school system, has caused ineffectiveness and unproductiveness of the technical teachers and often, teachers in general.
In a school where the staff are not constantly developed through seminars, workshops, in-house training or in-service training to develop their working skills, there will be poor teaching and learning process and this will no doubt, affect students’ learning process.