TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vii-viii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1-3
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Purpose of Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4-5
1.5 Research Hypotheses 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 Scope of the Study 6
1.8 Delimitation of the Study 6
1.9 Definition of Terms 6
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.1 Concept of Political Participation 7-11
2.2 Type of Political Participation 11-13
2.3 Forms of Political Participation 13-20
2.4 Factors Affecting Political Participation 20-24
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.0 Introduction 25
3.1 Research Design 25
3.2 Population of the Study 25
3.3 Sample 26
3.4 Sampling Techniques 26
3.5 Research Instrument and Instrumentation 26
3.6 Administration of Instrument 27
3.7 Validity of Instrument 27
3.8 Method of Data analysis 27
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis and interpretation
4.0 Introduction 28
4.1 Research Question 1 28-30
4.2 Research Question 2 30-32
4.3 Research Question 3 33-35
4.4 Discussion of result 35-36
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
5.1 Summary 37
5.2 Recommendation 38
5.3 Conclusion 38
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Political participation includes the political activities of citizens aimed at influencing the political process. Such participation could be either in an individual or group basis. The political process may be the ways, directions and methods of governance or the input of the outcomes of the process. The political activities that may involve their participation: selection of leaders, influencing decision of government and the process of governance. (Okafor 2002).
Political participation includes those action of private cities by which they seek to influence or support government and politics. Political participation could either be conventional or orthodox and unconventional or unorthodox. Writing on convention and non-conventional political participation. Janda et. al. state as follows:-
Thus, conventional participation is legal, constitutional, acceptable and normal. Activities here may include voting, campaigns and attendance to party meetings, expressing political opinions, standing for elections, registration as a party member and as a voter for an election contesting for elective offices, party funding. These activities are in consonance with the normal political process. Unconventional political participation includes those activities that are not acceptable, not regarded as lawful and legal, not sanctioned or not normal. They include such activities as riots, strikes, violent, demonstration, arson, boycotts, rebellion, terrorism, cultism, protests, and the like. It is felt that a higher propensity for the emergence of unconventional participation is accentuated by the existence of narrow or very limited conventional modes. For people to express their feelings and be heard under a trained mode they have to resort to unconventional approaches.
Conventional (orthodox) political participation is of two fold. There could be supportive participation or influencing participation. Under the supportive dimension, our citizens express allegiance or loyalty to the state and government. Examples include singing the national anthem, reciting the national pledge or making reference to such symbols as the national flag and the coat of arms, turning out for voting purpose, etc.
The influencing dimension is concerned with efforts to modify or reverse government policy to suit political interests. Examples include trying to secure some benefits from government, asking for special social or welfare services from the government such as setting up a health canter, construction or rehabilitation of roads, sitting, a public school or police post. e. t. c.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
From the above background of study, political participation is the vehicle through which citizens of a given society communicate their interests, demands, desires, support and or proposition to the authoritative decisions of the superstructure. However it seems the levels of people participation in politics are narrow may be due to the assertion that “politics is a dirty game”. Since 2003, democracy has come to be regarded as the source for political participation active towards rural direction. Therefore, this study would seek to find solutions to the following problem:-
- Low level of education.
- The culture of corruption.
- Parochial political culture.
- Subject political culture.
- Primordial sentiment and low socio-economic development.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study has the following objectives:
v To find out how low level of education has declined the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo
v To find out the culture of corruption whether or not, it has contribution to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
v To determine whether or not the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo area due to subject political culture.
v To investigate low socio-economic development ruralities of Ojo.
v To advance solution to the above identified problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
The research questions to be investigated are:
- What is the profile cause of low level of education in ruralities of Ojo?
- Can culture of corruption affect political participation in ruralities of Ojo?
- Can parochial political culture contribute to the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo?
- Is there any measure to be used to determine subject political culture in political participation in Ruralities of Ojo?
- What is the consequence of low socio-economic development on ruralities of Ojo?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To guide the study, the following null research hypotheses were raised to be tested:
- Low level of education cannot be significantly responsible for the level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
- Culture of corruption cannot affect level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
- Parochial political culture cannot contribute to low level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
- Low socio-economic development cannot be significantly responsible for level of political participation in ruralities of Ojo.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study will encourage active participation of individuals in the political process of their community. The study will also make the citizens to share in governance through expression of consent, choice, rejection of the leader and certain policies considers obnoxious. Through participation, the citizen makes some input in governance through the expression of demands, preferences, orientations, judgments and political process.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is the level of political participation of the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state. The scope was chosen due to the low level of political participation of the people in the area and individual development.
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will be limited to the ruralities in Ojo local government area of Lagos state on the level of political participation in 2008-2009.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Influence: Power to produce an effect, esp. on character, beliefs or action.
- Political Participation: Is the involvement of individual in political activities. It can be through electional activities covers voting, campaigns, seeking to persuade others to vote for a given candidate or party.