CHAPTER 1: Introduction
Career selection is one of many important choices students make in determining future plans. Career choice is one of the major areas of concern for young people nearing the end of their schooling. It is important to both parents and their children because this decision will impact them throughout their lives. Every student, at one time or the other, is faced with the challenge of making a choice of career. We must decide what manner of men we wish to be and what calling in life we would follow and this is the most difficult problem in the world”. Individual's vocation or career is one of the most important aspects of human endeavor because it determines a lot of things in human existence. It could either make or mar one's joy and happiness. He further contended that true joy, happiness and satisfaction are linked to proper choice of profession. He also posited that emotional and marital stability could be enhanced by the type of occupation one engages in. In Nigeria, many youths make wrong career choices due to ignorance, inexperience, peer pressure, wrong modeling, advice from friends, parents and teachers, or as a result of the prestige attached to certain jobs without adequate vocational guidance and career counseling. Consequently, many of them are unsuited for their careers, as they usually find themselves in jobs that do not satisfy their value needs. They are usually unable to contribute meaningfully to the society, and they ultimately become liabilities to the nation. The essence of who the student is will revolve around what the student wants to do with his or her life-long work. Work is one of our greatest blessings and that everyone should have an honest occupation. They also posited that every student carries the unique history of their past and this determines how they view the world. That history created in part by the student’s environment, personality, and opportunity, will determine how students make career choices. It then follows that how the students perceive their environment, personality, and opportunity will also determine the career choices they make. All these constitute what is referred to as student support system. The components of the student support system include parents, relatives, siblings, peers, teachers and counselors. Regarding the environment of a student, the home, peer group and the school are very significant. The Teacher Characteristics and Students’ Choice of Teaching
1.1 Background of the Study
Nobody can ignore the crucial role of teachers they play to change the attitudes of the society to make it a highly valued society in the world. No education system can flourish without good teachers and good teachers can be attracted towards teaching through motivation. Motivation is of two types intrinsic and extrinsic Darling (1999, p.45). The study attempts to find out most effective factors in attracting teachers towards teaching. By considering the importance of teachers many action plans and attractive packages were introduced in Europe, Australia and Asia to motivate teachers in teaching. Darling (1999, p.45) argued that poor salary scales, lack of save environment, inadequate resources and inflexible environment demotivate teachers all over the world. On the other hand competitive salary, conducive institutional environment, social respect, high status play as most motivating factors to encourage teachers for teaching profession. Book and Freeman (1992, p.27) also considered some other important reasons to choose teaching like intrinsic, extrinsic and altruistic motivation. All these three types of motivation sometimes overlap in defining features; it depends on the nature of question for what any type is used. For example the intention in working with students has come the umbrellas of intrinsic and sometimes under the bridge of altruistic form in various studies (Battle 1965, p.209). Book and Freeman (1985, p.27) identified most significant motivational reasons in entering teaching are job security, job benefits, suitability with family commitments, social participation and love to with students. The study therefore seeks to investigate a study of motivation on the choice of teaching as a profession in local government in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many studies have investigated factors that influence choice of teaching as a profession among teachers and students alike. Extrinsic (matters such as remuneration and other benefits), intrinsic (the enjoyment of teaching and the school environment) and altruistic (making a difference to young lives) motives have been investigated (Goh Edo Journal of Counseling Vol. 4, Nos. 1& 2, 2011 119 & Atputhasamy, 2001). Any strategic plan to address the shortage of qualified and well trained teachers will have to include the promotion among learners of a positive perception of the teaching profession. The promotion of teaching, however, will depend largely on how successfully such a campaign analyses and responds to the existing opinions among learners and whether it adequately addresses both positive and negative perceptions of teacher characteristics and teaching as a career among them
Many factors have been discovered to have influence on students’ career choices. For instance, factors such as parental pressure or influence, peer influence, social prestige associated with a job, gender role, teachers’ motivation, influence of other siblings, religious affiliation, course of study, job prospects, and so on, have been identified. There is a dearth of literature evidence showing influence of teacher characteristics on students’ career decision making. It is not unlikely that some students would decide to choose a particular career such as medicine or law just because of the personalities or physical characteristics of these professionals. Therefore the problem confronting this research is to investigate a study of motivation on the choice of teaching as a profession in local government in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
1 To determine the nature of motivation on the choice of teaching as a profession.
2 To determine the nature of teaching as a profession.
1.4 Research Questions
1 What is the nature of teaching as a profession?
2 What is the nature of motivation on the choice of teaching as a profession in local government in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study shall provide a framework of communication guidelines for the formulation of motivational policies for the promotion of the teaching profession through increased choices of enrollment and decision for the teaching profession as a career.
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis
1 Ho The level of choice of the teaching profession in local government in Nigeria is low
Hi The level of choice of the teaching profession in local government in Nigeria is high
2 Ho Motivation in the Teaching profession is low
Hi Motivation in the Teaching profession is high
3 Ho The impact of motivation on the choice of teaching as a profession in local government in Nigeria is low
Hi The impact of motivation on the choice of teaching as a profession in local government in Nigeria is high
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is focused on the appraisal of a study of motivation on the choice of teaching as a profession in local government in Nigeria.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Motivation - I t is the act of encouraging people to do something or act in a particular way by giving them gifts, incentives or rewards. In this context it refers to giving teachers’ gifts, promotions and allowing them to participate in the administration of the school.
Impact – I means to give a quality to something.
Performance – It is the process or manna of performing duties, outstanding action or achievement.
Secondary schools – It refers to institutions for educating children.
Teachers – It refers to people who teach especially in a school.