THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON GROWTH AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
This research work attempts to examine the impact of globalization on growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries. In this research work, the method of estimation is based on the use of multiple regression technique.
A unique relationship between globalization and poverty alleviation contributions was established. Our empirical findings also suggests that there is significant relationship between globalization and poverty alleviation to economic growth in Nigeria via employment, investment etc although the problem of poverty have not been total resolved, but it is certain in no distance future all these problems will be eliminated.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Research Methodology
1.6.1 Model Specification .
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
1.9 . Plan of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Concept of Globalization
2.2 Globalization and Economic Growth
2.3 Concept of Poverty
2.4 Globalization and Its Conceptual Usages
2.5 Strands of Thought on Globalization
2.6 Forces in Globalization .
2.6.1 Technological Revolution
2.6.2 Economic Liberalization
2.6.3Democratic System of Governance
2.6.4Challenges for Nigeria
CHAPTER THREE: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, BACKGROUND OF GLOBALIZATION AND THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY
3.2 Education and Socio-Cultural Structure
3.3 Impact of Agricultural Sector to the Development
of the Nigerian Economy Since 1980-Date
3.4 The Pattern of Agricultural Production in Nigeria
3.5 Impact of the Banking Sector to the Development
of the Nigerian Economy Since 1980-Date
3.6 Impact of Industrial Sector on the Nigerian Economy
3.7 The Nigerian Financial Sectors 59 References 65
CRAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY, DATA
ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
4.2 Research Publication
4.3 Data Analysis
4.4 Data Limitation
4.5 Model Specification and Aprori Expectation
4.6 Criteria for Decision Making
4.7 Presentation of Data
4.8 Summary of Regression Analysis
4.8.1 Model Equation One
4.8.2Model Equation Two
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies
Globalization can be described as the rapid integration of economies and whole markets, intensified financial flows, the information revolution, and cross-cultural currents. It can also be defined as the restructuring of global capitalism, characterized by the increased profile of international financial institutions, corporations and technology.
Kwanashie, Mike (2003); stated that economic globalization is a historical process, which is a result of human innovation and technological progress. This concept "globalization" is an increasing and encompassing phenomenon and it involves the movement of labour and technology across international borders. The concept of globalization has robust theoretical underpinning, the resurgence of lasses-faire economic theory explained these facts, it encapsulates both a description of changing patterns of work trade finance, and overwhelming conviction that deregulated markets will achieve optimal outcomes for growth and human welfare. The myths surrounding globalization IS the expansion of global economy, which is synonymous with an improvement in human welfare.
According to Taiwo, (2001); is of the view that poverty alleviation is a word that has been bandied around by Nigerian leaders of government since the return of democracy in 1999. They frequently mention these words as a mark to show their commitment towards providing a better life for the people. But it appears to me that many Nigerian leaders do not understand what it takes to alleviate the suffering of the poor masses of the country. Their programmes for poverty alleviation can hardly build people's lives and provide them with better living conditions. Little wonder many Nigerians are still trapped in poverty despite government poverty alleviation programmes across the country. There has been no improvement in the fight against poverty and this is widespread that it requires no proof.
Nigerian leaders need to take a clue from the western world on measures taken to reduce their people's suffering. These countries have been able to achieve the desired results through the provision of welfare programmes and leverage, provision of jobs, affordable health care and counseling, investments in public schools, building affordable houses, debates on teenage pregnancy, police protection (state policing); parenting and literacy programmes etc. Nigerian government could only alleviate poverty by adopting this approach to' eradicate the poor conditions of many Nigerian. Any government that is sincere about alleviating the suffering of the people be it at the federal, state or local government levels should begin to work in line with the above mentioned programmes in order to achieve results.
However, it is very vital to point out that globalization does not just exist as an entity on. its own but it .is developed in many other concepts like commercialization, privatization, and deregulation. There have been several campaigns, symposium and seminars nationally and internationally urging countries of the world to trade (whether within and across borders and as such agitating for world economic development.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The globalization of the world economy brings Immense benefits to countries that are able to harness the resulting opportunities to the proper development of their human resources. 'Though, globalization is actually making Nigerian economic development easier and less costly to the economy as a whole by bringing the benefits of capital flows, technological, innovations, and lower import prices but the gains are distributed unevenly among countries which make some groups to lose out especially the Third World Countries like Nigeria.
However, the strongest gains have been reaped by the advanced countries and the income gap between high income, and low income countries have grown so wide that majority of the citizens of low-income group live in abject poverty.
Nigeria as a country has 'not been able to reap fully fruit of globalization because the factors that serve as engine of globalization are underdeveloped. For a country like Nigeria to complete globally, there must be government alleviation programmes, constant electric power supply, advanced in technology and innovation, development of Nigerian manufacturing sectors and the general restructuring of all other sectors to complement the viable sectors.
The major problems that have crippled Nigeria economy over the years have been problem of dumping. Foreigners have taken advantage of our manufacturing sector and such imports various goods both durable and consumables into our economy. This has brought about a great challenge for the domestic products who apart from political instability, economic factors and financial constraints been made ineffective.
However, the major reason for the study of this research is to examine how globalization affects Nigerian economic development as a whole.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to examine "The Impact of Globalization on Growth and Poverty Alleviation in Developing Countries". The following .are the specific objectives of the study:
1. To examine the impact of globalization and poverty alleviation in developing countries like Nigeria.
ii. To examine the causes of poverty in developing countries.
iii. To examine the effects of globalization and poverty alleviation programmes in developing countries using Nigeria as a case study.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Therefore, the statements of problems are stated below by finding answers to the following questions:
a. What are the impacts of globalization and poverty alleviation to Nigerian economy?
b. What are the cause~ of poverty in developing countries using Nigeria as a case study?
c. What are the effects of globalization and poverty alleviation to economic growth of Nigeria?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is generally accepted fact that globalization is global and dominant-In the world, today. The differences· in the socioeconomic development across nations are attributed much to the development of the concepts of globalization and poverty alleviation in developing countries like Nigeria. In view of the above the importance of this study will includes:
i. Globalization has become a "threat to the poor rather than an opportunity for global action.
ii. Many economists and policy maker analysts argued that globalization particularly the increase mobility of international financial capital, has undermined the ability of countries "to engage in independent macroeconomic policies, whether fiscal or monetary policies.
iii. And implications of this are that government is less able to insulate programmes to alleviate poverty and their economies from the adverse effects of trade.
iv. Any government that "is sincere about alleviating the suffering of the people be it at the federal, state or local government levels should begin to work in line with the above mentioned programmes in order to achieve results.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Based on the research problems and objectives of the study, the following hypotheses have been formulated for subsequent verification;
Ho: There is no significant relationship between globalization and poverty alleviation in developing countries.
HA: There is significant relationship between globalization and poverty alleviation in developing countries.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between globalization and causes of poverty in developing countries.
HA: . There is significant .relationship between globalization and causes of poverty in developing countries.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between globalization and effects of globalization to economic growth of Nigeria.
HA: There is significant, relationship between globalization and effects of globalization to economic growth of Nigeria.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The methodology to be employed in the course of this research work is analytical as a mode of investigation. Secondary source of data will be based by way of information obtained from the National Planning Commission, Federal Office of Statistics, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations. Other information will be obtained from annual reports, journals, magazines and the internet.
However, in this research work the method of estimation is based on the use of multiple regression technique using the regress and regressor terminology. Econometric techniques shall be used to study the relationship between the explained and explanatory variables in mathematical form. Economic theory and variable information that is related to the subject matter as well as published studies on the subject by other research workers shall be used in specifying the econometric model.
1.6.1 MODEL SPECIFICATION
GDP = ao + alINT + a2CPI + a3GCF + a4INV + µ
GDP = Gross Domestic Product
PVT = Poverty Alleviation
EC = Economic Growth
INV = Investment (Aggregate)
ao = Intercept or Constant term of the relationship
al- a4 = Parameters of Co-efficient
U1 = Stochastic Factor
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study shall focus on the impact of globalization on growth and 'Poverty alleviation in .developing countries using Nigeria as a case study. This study additionally identifies the impact of globalization, the causes of poverty in developing countries, the effect of poverty alleviation and globalization to economic growth of Nigeria using Nigeria.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The major relevant limitation or limiting factor for this study was difficulty in getting relevant information from appropriate sources.
1.9 PLAN OF THE STUDY
This project work is divided into five (5) chapters and they are as follows;
Chapter one consists of' the introduction, statement of the problems, research questions, aim and objectives of the study, research hypothesis, significance of the study, research methodology, scope of the study, limitation of the study, plan of. the study and the references. Chapter two also focuses on the review of intensive, which is rent to review previous works that are related to the topic under study. Chapter three consists of structural composition of the study. Chapter four also consists of research methodology, data analysis, interpretation and presentation of the results while chapter five consists of the summary, findings, recommendations, conclusion, then followed by the references.