DYNAMICS OF MOTIVATION IN AN ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA PORTS AUTHORITY)
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Statement of the problem
1.2 Objective of the study
1.3 Research Methodology
1.4 Research Question
1.5 State of Hypothesis
1.6 Scope of Limitation of the study
1.7 Relevance of study
1.8 Organization of study
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0 Definition of Motivation
2.1 Managing Rewards and Motivational
System in an Organisation
2.2 Types of motivation
2.3 Reward Motivation and productivity
2.4 Performance related pay and Motivation
CHAPTER: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND
3.0 Theories of Motivation
3.1 Need theories of motivation
3.2 Process theories of motivation
3.3 Reinforcement theories of Motivation
3.4 Leadership Motivation theories
3.5 Research Methodology
3.6 Research Design
3.7 The study population
3.8 Sample size and Sampling Technique
3.9 Research Instrument
3.10 Method Analysis
3.11 Significant Test under chi-square
CHAPTER FOUR: RESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Distribution by Demographic Data
4.2 Motivation Inducement System
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Productivity and total quality experts tell us that we need smarter; not harder. While it is true that a sound education appropriate skins training are necessary if one is to work smart, the process does not end there.
Today's workers need instructive and supportive feedback, as well as "desired motivation" if they are to translate their effort is to be adequate rewarded.
Motivational systems have limited meaning that· excludes many kinds of inducements offered to people at work. They do not include; wages and salary, 'payment and merit .pay, overtime payment, pay for holiday work or differential. According to (Obisi 1996).
Motivation is a thing that is given or receive for doing something good or working harder, in this case, we have to look at both monetary and non-monetary read. Also, motivations are given to employees as an inducement towards their performance on the job it is an additional payment that would put a smile on the face of the recipient.
It also serves as bonuses given in exchange for a job properly done. This is inducement, which is aimed at motivating the workers and encouraging them to work harder and smarter,
Motivation whether monetary or non-monetary are motivators. However, monetary rewards are external while that non-monetary are internal. Idowu (2000) however, affirmed that motivational system in an organization goes a long way to determine job satisfaction and performance, the amount the quality, the value, and the distribution of rewards as well have impact on job performance. A good manager heeds to take these factors into consideration when designing and distributing rewards that motivate workers in an organization.
Kreitner, Kinicki and Buelens (2002) write that motivation s are ever present and always controversial features of organizational life. Some employees see their jobs as the source of pay cheques and little else. Others derive pleasure from their jobs and association with co-workers even volunteer donate there to charitable organization. Such as the Red Cross, walk away with motivation in the form of social recognition and the pride of having given unselfishly their time. Hence, the subject of organizational motivation includes, but goes far beyond monetary compensation.
For any organization or company that desires to motivate its employees "fire-fighting approach" is counter-productive and should be discouraged. It gives room for in security and melancholy etc because; the progress of the organization would seek ways of translating into their own fortune, workers seem to be greatly concerned with the running of the organization.
Hence, customers and owners interest are guaranteed only when the climate for high productivity; is favourable; therefore the management of any organization should recognize the fact that motivation at work place is a total concept and as such should be seen from a universal perspective rather than from a parochial one. The term reward management covers both the
strategy and the practice of pay systems. Traditionally, personnel sections have been concerned with levels and schemes of payments where as the process of paying employees, the pay roll function has been the responsibility of the finance departments. It incorporates other changes in pay administration system and policy, including; decentralization of responsibility for setting pay level, uniform appraisal schemes; flexible working practices and performance related pay price (2004).
In additional, to treating motivation as an expense, a manager also uses it to influence employee's behaviour and improve organizational performance. The way workers are paid affects the quality of their work: their attitude towards customers and their willingness to be flexible.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The main purpose of every organization is profit maximization. All factors of production must be adequately channeled to attain a particular goal for an organization to achieve profit, man stands out among all the factors of production because he is the one that puts all the other factors e.g. land, capital etc to use. That's not withstanding, man's skill remains insatiable.
Motivation: towards improved performance is achieved when workers are psychologically tuned to a positive disposition, which can now leaf them to perform in a particular way. The type of motivation a worker receives has a long way to determine his dedication and efficiency in his work place. Also levels of rewards and the motivating factors vary from one employee to the other as well from organization to organization.
Also, deposits huge investment of· time and money for organizational reward systems often desired motivational impact· which is not achieved. This is as <:- result or two much emphasis on monetary rewards.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are:
1. To examine if rewards system can contribute to workers performance services.
2. To examine whether the lengths of services has any influences on organization motivational system.
3. To examine whether job status has any influence on organizational motivation.
4. To examine whether' good reward motivations attract and return talented workers.
1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This study includes' primary and secondary methods. The primary method is the use of interview as well as the questionnaire method of sourcing for relevant information. While the secondary source includes library research, where articles in journals, texts and relevant publications can gathered.
Again, descriptive statistics will be used to analyze data collected for the study. Also, to test the hypothetical statement stated for this study, chi-square statistical techniques would be used. The chi-square formula is given as:
X2 = ∑(O-e)2
Where O = observed frequency
e = Expected frequency
Degree of freedom (r-1) (1- 1)
Where r = number of row.
c = number of columns
To calculate the expected value, the formula is given as:
C = Row total x column total
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Does motivation contribute to workers efficiency?
2. Do gender sensitivity influence organizational reward System?
3. Do length of services have any influence on organizational motivation?
4. Do job status have any influence on motivation to an organization?
5. Can good reward system attract and retain talented workers?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The statement of hypothesis can be stated as follows:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between motivation and employees performance.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between motivation and employees performance.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers all aspects organization's motivational system. It also covers' the responsibilities assigned to individual In the organization. The study will be limited to the activities of workers in the Nigerian Ports Authority.
1.7 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is aimed at examining the significant roles played by motivation in an organization. "It is our expectation that the results of our findings would sensitize the management of an organization on the need to constitute a good motivation in their profile.
1.7 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY
This study is divided into five (5) chapters. Chapter one contains the introduction of the study. Chapter two examines the review of literatures while chapter three contains the theoretical framework of the study: Chapter four focuses on data presentation and interpretation. Chapter five contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Idowu O.F (2002) Managements Behaviour and Performance In Organization, Nigeria: Segeprints.
Kreitner R, Kinicki A. and Buelens M. (2002) Organizational Behaviour,
London: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Obisi (1996) Personnel Management, Ibadan: Jackbod Enterprises.
Price, A (2004) Human Resources Management In a Business Context