MERGER AND ACQUISITION STRATEGY FOR GROWTH, IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND SURVIVAL IN THE FINANCIAL SECTOR (A STUDY OF STERLING BANK, ACCESS BANK AND ECO BANK)

ABSTRACT

This study aim at analyzing the effect of merger and acquisitions on the performance and growth of financial sector within the span of 2005-2012. The broad objective of this research work is to examine if there is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of gross earnings and also to examine if there is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of profits after tax and net assets. The data were collected from the annual report of three banks namely Sterling Bank Nigeria plc, Access Bank plc and Eco Bank of Nigeria plc for the period of 2005-2012. The Ordinary  Least Square (OLS) were employed using E-view Statistical Method. The result of the analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of gross earnings and also that there is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of profits after tax and net asset. Based on these findings, it is recommended that government should strengthen the financial sector by encouraging merger and acquisitions in Nigerian banks.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE                                                                               PAGE       

Title page                                                                                         i                 

Declaration                                                                                      ii

Certification                                                                                     iii

Dedication                                                                                       iv

Acknowledgement                                                                           v

Abstract                                                                                           vi

Table of Contents                                                                           

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study                                                         1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                        2

1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                            3

1.4 Research Questions                                                                 4

1.5 Research Hypotheses                                                               5

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                         6

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study                                         6

1.8. Definition of Terms                                                                  6

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Conceptual Framework                                                          9

2.1.1. Merger and Acquisition                                                        9

2.1.2. Banking Sector Performance                                              12

2.2 Empirical Review                                                                      12

2.3. Theoretical Review                                                                            24

2.4. Summary                                                                                           31

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1.   Introduction                                                                                    34

3.2. Re-Statement of Hypotheses                                                            34

3.3 Specification of Model                                                                        35

3.4 Research Methodology                                                                       36

3.5 Source of Data                                                                                    36

3.6 Methods of Analysis                                                                           36

3.7. Limitation of Methodology                                                              37

 

CHAPTER FOUR:ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

4.1    Introduction                                                                                     38

4.2.   Data Presentation on Sterling Bank of Nigeria Plc For Pre         38

(1997- 2004) and Post (2005-2012) MERGER.

4.3    Data Presentation on Access Bank for African Plc for Pre          44

(1997- 2004) and Post (2005-2012)

4.4    Eco Bank Nigeria Plc extracted financial efficiency                     49

parameters (1997 to 2004) pre merger and (2005-2012)

post merger .

4.3.   Conclusion                                                                                       53

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    Introduction                                                                                     55

5.2    Summary of Findings                                                                     55

5.3    Conclusions                                                                                     56

References                                                                                       59

Appendix                                                                                          73

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The relevance of banks in the economy of any nation cannot be overemphasized. They are the cornerstones of the economy of a country. The economies of all market-oriented nations depend on the efficient operation of complex and delicately balance systems of money and credit (Bauer, 2009).

Banks are an indispensable element in these systems. They provide the bulk of the money supply as well as the primary means of facilitating the flow of credit. Consequently, the economic well being of a nation is a function of advancement and development of her banking industry (Obadan, 2007).

The financial deregulation in Nigeria that started in1986 and the associated financial innovations have generated an unprecedented degree of competition in the banking industry. The deregulation initially pivoted powerful incentives for the expansion of both size and number of banking and non-banking institutions (Chatterjee, 2006).

The consequent phenomenal increase in the number of banking and non-banking institutions providing financial services led to increased competition amongst various banking institutions, and between banks and non-banking financial intermediaries.

Banks play a crucial role in propelling the entire economy of any nation, of which there is need to reposition it for efficient financial performance through a reform process geared towards forestalling bank distress.

In Nigeria, the banking sector is part and parcel of the government strategic agenda aimed at repositioning and integrating the Nigerian banking sector into the African regional and global financial system in order to make the Nigerian banking sector sound, the sector has undergone remarkable changes over the years in terms of the number of institutions, structure of ownership, as well as depth and breadth of operations (Akpan 2007).  These changes have been influenced mostly by the challenges posed by deregulation of the financial sector, operations globalization, technological innovations, and implementation of supervisory and prudential requirements that conform to international Soludo (2004) opined that, the Central Bank of Nigeria(CBN) chose to begin the Nigerian banking sector reforms process with the consolidation and recapitalization policy through mergers and acquisitions. This is done in order to arrest systems decay, restoration of public confidence, building of strong, competent and competitive players in the global arena, ensuring longevity and higher returns to investors considering the regulations and standards.

Inability of most Nigerian banks to perform well due to operational hardship, expansion bottlenecks as a result of heavy fixed and operating costs coupled with volatility between deposits and lending rates, the present banking sector reforms in Nigeria was announced by Chukwuma Soludo, the then CBN governor on July 6th, 2004 with the objective of creating a sound and more secure banking system that depositors can trust through mergers and acquisitions which enhanced operational capital base. These and many more, act as a springboard to achieving improved efficiency. However, this research work will examine effect of merger and acquisitions on the performance and growth of financial sector.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The Nigerian banking system has undergone remarkable changes over the years in terms of the number of institutions, ownership structure as well as development of the grassroots area. The changes have been influenced by challenges posed by deregulation of the financial sector, globalization, technological innovation and adoption of supervisory and prudential requirements that conform to international standard (Adeniyi 2010).

The recent incident of bank mergers and acquisitions in Nigeria is attracting much attention, partly because of heightened interest in what motivates firms to merge and how merger and acquisition affects performance or efficiency as well as banks output. The banking system has also been plagues by sharp practices, fraud and forgeries especially by in-house managers and other connected person.

However, the vital importance of merger on the performance of banking industry has not been fully explored thereby creating a research gap in this area. Hence, this research work will examine effect of merger and acquisitions on the performance and growth of financial sector.

 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this research work is to examine the effect of merger and acquisitions on the performance and growth of financial sector. However the specific objectives are;

  1. To examine if there is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of gross earnings.
  2. To examine if there is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of profits after tax.
  3. To examine if there is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of net asset.

1.4 Research Questions

The research questions that are relevant to this study are state below:

(i)         Is there a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of gross earnings?

(ii)       Is there a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of profits after tax?

(iii)      Is there a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of net asset?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The hypotheses that were tested in the course of this research are stated below:-

Hypothesis 1

Ho: There is no significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of gross earnings.

H1: There is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of gross earnings.

Hypothesis 2

Ho: There is no significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of profits after tax.

Hi: There is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of profits after tax.

Hypothesis 3

Ho: There is no significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of net asset.

Hi: There is a significant difference in the pre and post mergers and acquisitions periods of banks in terms of net asset.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to give enlightenment on the effect of merger and acquisitions on the performance and growth of financial sector and also to justify the merger and acquisition exercise as directed by the CBN and its effect on the economy as a whole. Stakeholders and general public will benefited from the research work. Moreso, Academics and students will appreciate the usage of this research as part of their reference material.

 

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The subject matter of the study was limited to a period of 8 years (2005-2012). The period  is important  in order  to derive  more  realistic   conclusion  and recommendations while  the  study  will also  be constrained  by the time  among others.

1.8. Definition of Terms

Merger: This is a situation where two or more independent companies combine to form a new company.

Acquisition: This is where one company takes over the control of another company by buying all the shares or sufficient shares to enable them have controlling power in the company.

Consolidation: viewed as the reduction in the number of banks and other deposit taking institutions with a simultaneous increase in size and concentration of the consolidated entitles in the sector (BIS, 2001)

Strategy: According to Onwuchekwa, (2009) strategy is an integrated plan through which a business organization accomplishes its objective, or rather as an overall response of a business organization over its environment.

Reform: Predicated upon the need for reorientation and repositioning of an existing status quo in order to attaining an effective and efficient state.

C.A.M.E.L It is a parameter used in accessing the health of banks where C stands for capital adequacy, A stands for Asset quality, M stands for Management and staff, E stands for Earning and profitability, L stands for Liquidity and fund management. 

Capital Base: It is paid up capital and reserved unimpaired losses.

Capitalization: Provision of money needed by company to function effectively and efficiently.

Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN): It is the apex bank in Nigeria banking sector or industry that represent the government of the country and also act as the banker to the government in the area of financing, advertising on monetary policies and implementation.

C.T.C Certified True Copy

Distressed Bank: These are banks that are unable to meet its obligation, both in the society and to their depositors.

Due Diligence: This is a phrase in merger and acquisition prices where parties explore the risk inherent in purchasing or merging will another company.

F.S.A.P: Financial Sector Assessment Programme

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU): It is an undertaking by the parties top the pre-merger arrangement or programme.

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