THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE DISCIPLINE ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE
Discipline in an organization ensures productivity and efficiency. It encourages harmony and co-operation among employees as well as act as a morale booster for the employees. According to Fenley  the management of workplace discipline remains a key problem in employee relations, and is one of the most discernible sources of conflict at work. Decenzo and Robbins  define discipline as the conditions in the organization where employees conduct themselves in accordance with the organization‟s rules and standards of acceptable behavior. Redeker  explains that discipline aims to create and maintain mutual respect and trust between management and the employees. He further notes that discipline may have long term cost to the company if it is not well managed and these include legal costs, time lost in preparing or attending court cases, reduction in productivity and expense associated with replacing staff.
Discipline is very essential for a healthy industrial atmosphere and the achievement of organizational goals .Various disciplinary management mechanisms can be manipulated in the organization which includes positive and negative reinforcement of expected behavior in the organization. Organizations can do this through the use of the employment code of conduct, rewarding good behavior, punishing undesirable behavior and other indirect methods of putting trust among employees. Discipline in an organization ensures productivity and efficiency. It encourages harmony and co-operation among employees as well as act as a morale booster for the employees.(monnapa, 2000)
Odiagbe (1998) looks at discipline as “a normal behavior or codes of conduct based on principles of natural justice which modifies or controls behavior to reduce misbehavior and makes organizational goals accomplishment possible. This point shared by Harris (1976) who believes that discipline is “the process of training workers so that they can develop self-control and become more effective in achieving organizational goals”. He goes further to say that “the purpose of the supervisory imposed disciplinary process in the development and furtherance of the type of performance from the individual employee that will be conducive for the achievement of organization goals.
The key word with these two scholars is goal, thus discipline is seen as a tool whose effective use can result in the realization or accomplishment of organizational goal. Harris (1976) argues that both positive reward and negative penalties could be used to encourage the desired behavior. He sees discipline as giving reward or punishment. To him discipline should be visualized as the development of the ability to analyze situations to determine what the correct behavior is and to decide to act favourably in advance receiving specific reward or penalties.
Knight (2014) therefore defines discipline as a pattern of behavior which can be traced back from a particular training. This behaviour is portrayed by a person in order to demonstrate his personal traits. An employee, for example reflects a particular behaviour in a workplace situation and his behavior contributes towards attaining his or her goal at the organization. Dumisan, (2002) define discipline as a system of rules and mechanism for ensuring that disciplinary codes are followed. This implies that every organization has its rules and regulation “dos and don’ts”.Observance of these sets of rules in itself is discipline.
In the view of Odeyemi (2001), ‘Discipline also refers to punitive actions or measures taken by an organization against erring worker, it is punishment for wrong doing by an employee. Discipline has some purpose which includes correcting the erred employee, re-directing of staff to the set objectives and to prevent future occurrence of such misdeed by either the affected staff or the prospective victim. It serves as a preventive and deterrent measure against diversion of attention and goals. Disciplinary measures are guided by basic principle so as to accomplish its desired purposes in an organization.
Odiom (2001) observed that that ‘a fair degree of predictable behavior is needed from individual(s) for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. One of the means in ensuring decorum, progress and effectiveness in organization is discipline. Where there are no proper disciplinary procedures for erring officers there will be a dislocation of effective organizational functionality.
1.2. Statement of Problem
Disciplinary issues in most organizations have been handled in a way that creates conflict and hatred in the workplace. In most cases, disciplinary measures are being used as punitive rather than corrective purpose.
Apart from this, the effectiveness of disciplinary measure rests on effective rules and regulations, most times rules are violated, protocol jumped and procedures avoided, these seriously undermines the effectiveness of discipline measures especially in public organizations where violation of laws is at the highest. This has made the disciplinary actions less effective and invariably affects the organization negatively
Majority of the employee who pursue their issue win most of the labour cases such that the organizations end up reinstating them, which ultimately affect organizational performance. Organizations therefore have not been able to use disciplinary systems that aim at correcting behavior without hurting the worker
1.3. Objectives of the Study
This study intends to
To appraise the impact of employee discipline on organization performance
To determine the extent to which indiscipline has influenced the performance of employee in an organization
To identify the major causes of staff indiscipline in most organizations in Nigeria
To identify the nexus between transparent disciplinary procedures and eradication of gross indiscipline in an organization
To investigate into those factors hindering the effectiveness of discipline measure in public organization
To suggest possible recommendations that would enhance a more effective discipline system in public organization in Nigeria
1.4. Significance of the Study
Discipline is highly instrumental to effective organizational performance. However, sequel to the fact the current level gross indiscipline in public organization is alarming and its attendant effects on the performance of public organizations in Nigeria makes this study imperative. Therefore, the researcher considers it significant to bring to light the relevance of employee discipline on organizational performance. Thus, this study will reveal the impact of effective disciplinary measures on both employee and organizational performance
It is believed that this study will contribute to existing body of knowledge and it will be highly beneficial to management of both private and public organizations, the general readers and future researchers who may be interested in this kind of research work
1.5. Scope of the study
This study focuses primarily on an appraisal of the impact of employee discipline on organizational performance, specifically; the interest of the study will be restricted on the Polytechnic Ibadan, due to time and finance constraints. Thus, the investigation of the study will be conduct within the Polytechnic Ibadan and the focus of the study will be on members of staff of the institution
1.6. Statement of Hypotheses
Ho: Employee discipline has no significant impact on overall organization performance
H: Employee discipline has significant impact on overall organization performance
Ho: Effective disciplinary action is not a viable instrument of directing employee behaviour towards the accomplishment of organizational goal
Hi: Effective disciplinary action is a viable instrument of directing employee behaviour towards the accomplishment of organizational goal
Ho: There is no meaningful relationship between disciplinary action and correction of employee unwanted behaviour
Hi: There is meaningful relationship between disciplinary action and correction of employee unwanted behaviour
1.7. LIMITATIONS TO THE STUDY
There are the possible problems the researchers may face in the course of
conducting the research work which may include:
Every good and successful research work requires sufficient finance. However, this research work may face the problem of finance as a result of the little financial resources at the disposal of the researchers.
The conduct of all activities relating to the research work is time consuming whereas the institution has specified limited time for the conduct of the research work. The allotted time for study is too short for the conduct of the research and this may limit the scope of the research work.
1.8. DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
Performance is the consistent ability to produce results over prolonged period of time and in a variety of assignments. Its elements include effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, quality and behaviour. Performance can thus be tangible or behavioural. It also implies output in relation to a job done or practice undertaken
Personnel otherwise known as employee are the body of men and women who are employed to accomplish a particular task or render a particular service in an organization and are being paid for the work done or service rendered
Discipline as a system of rules and mechanism for ensuring that disciplinary codes are followed. This implies that every organization has its rules and regulation “dos and don’ts”.Observance of these sets of rules in itself is discipline.
This is a body of people assembled together to accomplish a specified or predetermined objective
This is a judgment, assessment or evaluation of the value of something especially a formal one
1.9 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY
The polytechnic, Ibadan was established in 1970 as a successor to the erstwhile technical college, Ibadan under the provisions of a principal edict cited as the polytechnic, Ibadan edict 1970. This edict has undergone several amendment in order to make the polytechnic relevant to the present day needs of Oyo State, the prospector in particular and Nigeria in general.
The primary function of the polytechnic is to provide for student training and development of the techniques in applied science, engineering environmental science and commerce. The polytechnic has been producing majorly middle level manpower that has been making valuable contribution to the social and economic development of the country.
Over the years, the polytechnic has also produced high level manpower in some area such as urban and regional planning, mass communication, public administration, engineering e.t.c. The primary focus of the polytechnic is training that is practical oriented. The institution has been performing this function creditably well for almost forty-eight (48) years. The graduate of the polytechnic, Ibadan are fund in almost all area of endeavor all over the country and even outside the country.
By the amendment of the principal edict of the polytechnic, which came into force on 17th, March 1987, four satellites computers of the polytechnic were created. They took off during 19811982 Session and were sited at Eruea saki, Iree and Esa-oke. Each of the campuses is headed by a director who is responsible to the Rector of the administration and discipline of the campus. However, with the creator of Osun state, the campus at Iree and Esa-oke beceme the property of Osun State government.
Since 1975/1976, state academic session, the polytechnic, Ibadan has been operating on faculty system for easier work co-ordination and management. At present, these are five faculties namely: Engineering, Science, Environment Studies, Financial and Management Studies and Business and Communication Studies. The faculties offer Higher National Diploma and Nation Diploma Programmes. The student enrolment of the institution has continued to grow over the years.
THE PRINCIPAL/OFFICERS OF THE POLYTECHNIC
The officer of the Polytechnic constitutes the core of the management of the institution. They are:
The Rector, who is the chief academic and executive officer of the institution. He is responsible to the governing council for the day to day activities administration and discipline of the polytechnic. Deputy Rector is the next in rank to the Rector; he performs function and duties as may be assigned to him by the Rector. He looks after the institution in the absence of the Rector.
Registrar is the chief administration officer and his responsible to the rector for the general administration of the affairs of the polytechnic. Chief librarian is responsible to the rector for proper administration stocking of the librarian and other facilities.
Director of works and services is responsible to the rector for maintenance of building and vehicles, capital projects e.t.c. of the polytechnic. The Chief Security Officer is responsible for the security of institution as a whole. The various heads of faculties are responsible for the administration of their respective faculties and the Head of Department administer each department