AN ASSESSMENT OF STAFF MOTIVATION AS PANACEA FOR IMPROVED ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF LASACO ASSURANCE PLC)
The need for staff motivation has been questioned by many scholars, the goal of achieving a realistic utilization of human resource has remained unattainable in some organizations.
However, it has been proposed that the reward that a person receives from his performance directly affects his job satisfaction. Jobs are highly specialized and standardized when they are designed according to the principles of scientific management. This research is concerned with an Assessment of Staff Motivation as Panacea for improved organizational productivity in LASACO ASSURANCE PLC, Lagos. The data for this study were collected through personal interview, discussion and use of questionnaire from the employees of LASACO ASSURANCE PLC in its head office, Lagos. Chi-square statistical method was used to test the hypotheses formulated.
The findings revealed that improved staff welfare, provision of adequate materials, training and development will help to improve productivity of employees.
Also, division of labour, good management working relation and fair dealing will also assist in attaining efficient productivity.
Hence, in other to attain a lofty staff motivation as panacea to improve organization productivity it was recommended that the remunerations of workers should be upgraded to make the work attractive and competitive with other organizations that operate in the same sector as LASACO. Also, the management and all other stake-holders involved in the motivation Schemes of LASACO ASSURANCE PLC workers should keep abreast with the latest research findings so as to apply them to motivate their workers in compliance with international best practice.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the research work
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research question'
1.6 Research hypothesis
1.8 Scope and limitation of the work
1.9 Outline of the chapter
1.10 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The meaning of motivation
2.2 Theories of motivation
2.3 Need satisfaction and non-satisfaction
2.4 The significance of understanding human needs
2.5 Job satisfaction
2.6 Pre-requisites to link performance and reward
2.9 Effect of motivation on the productivity of the organization as well as that of the employee
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Nature of research method
3.2 Research design
3.3 Data sources (Primary and secondary source)
3.4 Population sample/sample design
3.5 Sampling procedure
3.6 Validity and reliability of the instruments
3.7 Method of data presentation and analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Presentation of data
4.2 Data analysis and results
4.3 Analysis of individual questionnaire
4.4 Testing of hypothesis and discussion of results
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.0 Summary of work
In any organization there are four major factors of production which include man (human resource), machine, raw material and money. Human resources play the vital role of coordinating all other factors of production in order to bring about an increase in output.
Human resource is the process of grouping people into various activities in an organization and systematically coordinating the task of harnessing machines, material and money resources needed to bring about desired output. It is different from organization which is a social entity where individuals interact to achieve a specific goal and relation that, or intends to be rationally co-ordinated, directed and controlled , on a continuous basis through time.
The question therefore is how this difference can be reconciled to bring about an increase in productivity and actualize organizational goals and objectives.
However, the major dilemma of every organization is the successful working of these factors rationally alongside with human happiness. And individual who has ability, skill and knowledge would not do much without what is, called "MOTIVATION". Motivation can be described as the direction and persistence of action. It is concerned with why people choose a particular course of action in preference to others and why they continue with a chosen action, often over a long period and in the face of difficulties and problems.
Oyedijo (2008) the term motivation is derived from the latin word "Movere" meaning "to move". In the present context motivation represent "those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary action that are goal directed".
Bankole (2000) notes that motivated workforce is a crucial component of an organization's success. He also defined motivation as "those inner drives that activate or move an - individual to action". In essence, it is what spurs an individual- - towards a desired behaviour.
It is apparent and a fact that every human being has a need or. needs. These needs vary in intensity and preference. The need form the basis for their behaviour at work, at home and at every activity they pursue, that is everything they do is geared toward satisfying one need or the other. One of the primary responsibilities of management at all level is to assess their. employees performance.
Employee performance evaluation influence their promotion, demotion, transfer and dismissal which are all motivational panacea, the directly or indirectly objective of sound human relation management is to ensure simultaneous satisfaction of human need and at the same time, meeting organizational goals.
With these aforementioned, there is need for the management ` at all levels to have good and cordial human relationship in order to understand employees needs and find solution of meeting these needs.
However, it is obvious that when the hopes and expectation are not met, it will definitely lead to lack of satisfaction of employees on the job or work environment, which will in turn lead to negative behaviour such as high labour turnover, absenteeism and aggregate low productivity in an organization.
Productivity determines how well an operational system function, all organization in respect of the objective must be productive to service.
Considering the topic of this research work which is "Assessment of Staff Motivation as a Panacea for Improved Organizational Productivity, LASACO as a case study", this research work aimed at assessing the dynamics of motivation variable and resultant effects on the productivity of an average staff of LASACO Assurance Plc.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH WORK
LASACO Assurance Plc was incorporated on 20th December 1979 under the company's decree of 1968 ad obtained license as an insurer on 7th July 1980 and also the company commenced operations on the 1st August 1980.
LASACO became a public limited liability company in 1991, as a composite insurance group, the company transacts all classes of insurance business in Nigeria and is also a leading member of the Nigeria oil and energy insurance pool.
In the year 2007, LASACO embarked on the acquisition of Elmac Insurance Company Limited while at the same time, the, company revived and expanded its real estate subsidiary. The areas of specialization of LASACO include the general insurance, life insurance and properties and investments.
At LASACO, they have built their executive and management teams to reflect well-rounded blend of professional skills, experience and qualification, while emphasizing gender and expertise diversity.
In the discharge of their operations (that is, general insurance, life, property and investment assurance operations), the following departments ensure smooth running of the operations.
i. The technical department
ii. The administrative department
iii. The personnel
iv. The accounting/ financial control
v. The human resources department to mention but a few.
People strategy is anchored on attracting, talents to the insurance industry and related services. They encourage their staff at every level to be creative, innovative and to excel and support them with the relevant tools and exposure by giving them assignment with increasing responsibilities and challenges early in their careers with the company.
However, it is the policy of the company that there should be no discrimination in considering applications for employment including those from disable person. All person whether or not disabled are given equal opportunities to develop. As at 31 December 2007, the company has one person known to be disabled. As a part of motivating policy, the company gives priority to the health and safety of its employee by ensuring that health and safety procedures are substantially complied with and maintained in its daily operations.
Another major strategy of the management which has contributed tremendously to the success of the company is the scope of responsibility and authority given to their managers in the exercise of their duties. In addition, they organize compact training retraining programmes for their staff with a view to increasing efficiency, productivity and rendering of qualitative and excellent services.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, development has witnessed an increased motivational strategy but the social needs have continued to rise in various organization. In reality, individuals needs differs, the question is, how does an organization provide all these needs according to their intensity and preference?
Limited organizational resources, closely linked to the above is that the resource of the organization are limited. In addition, the resources are being demanded by other segments of the society, investors, suppliers and government.
Managers do take certain decision based on assumption about human nature and on the assumption they base their motivational promises which might be wrong or right.
Inadequate attention by the government and lack of awareness by the management on the need for improved motivational strategies to enhance productivity of an average employee is an organization. Actually, workers social needs are determined by felt need and the availability of the resources to meet the needs. Financial grants in aid or in any other form whether local or foreign can surely make difference in contributing to economic growth but all these cannot deliver the much needed goods without a well activated aid motivated human resources, the nature of man is very complex. It is not easy to talk of human being without their complex natural characteristics and qualities. Therefore, without motivation organization will not last long.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The overall objective of this research work is to identify the impact of motivation on the productivity of employees of LASACO Assurance Plc. Other objective of this research work are also to;
i. Measure the effect of motivation on the development of workers
ii. Stress the importance of motivational strategies as a means to enhance productivity of an average employee in an organization
iii. Determine the contribution of well motivated employee to the productivity of LASACO Assurance Plc
iv. Measure the degree at which the staff of LASACO Assurance Plc are said to be motivated.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is to measure the effect of motivation on the productivity of LASACO Assurance Plc.
However, this study will assists to determine the level at which workers are motivated for higher productivity in the organization, that is LASACO Assurance Plc. The research work will also serve as a basis for further work.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Research question are those questions that are necessary in line with the hypothesis to be tested.
i. To what extent does conducive working environment has any impact on employee performance?
ii. How does job challenges affect employees' performance?
iii. What is the effect of inadequate remuneration on employee performance?
iv. How does training and development of workers contributes to organizational productivity?
v. To what extent do salaries/wages serve as motivating factors on workers performance?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: Conducive working environment has negative impact on employees performance
HA: Conducive working environment has positive impact on employees performance.
Ho: Training and development of workers does not contribute to organizational productivity.
HA: Training and development of workers contribute to organizational productivity.
In an attempt to conduct the assessment of staff motivation as panacea for improved organizational productivity in LASACO Assurance Plc, a survey would be conducted into LASACO Assurance Plc, by gathering data, through primary and secondary sources of data collection. The primary sources of data collection include the use of questionnaire and interview of different levels of staff.
Data would be obtained through direct administration of questionnaire and through personal interview of the staff. Also data will be collected and presented in tabular form. The validity of their responses will be tested by chi-square. The questionnaire basically shared among both junior and senior staffs of LASACO.
The secondary method/source of data collection on the other hand includes textbooks, newspaper, magazine, journals andother scholarly articles on the assessment of staff motivation a panacea for improved organizational productivity.
1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE WORK
The scope of the study is aimed at covering all branches of the LASACO Assurance Plc. However, inhibiting factors such as time, finance, distance and non-availability of data abound.
The scope covers areas of operations of LASACO such as General insurance, Life insurance, property and investment insurance in Lagos
However, the research will be limited to motivation as it affects the management and staff of LASACO. As a result Human Resource Department located in the Head office at Ikeja, Lagos will assist in providing basic information that will be useful to this research.
1.9 OUTLINE OF THE CHAPTER
Chapter one: This chapter will include introduction of the study, the background, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significant of the study, limitation of the study, methodology, research question, research hypothesis and definition of relevant terms using LASACO Assurance Plc as case study.
Chapter Two: This chapter deals with the review of different writers and authors work on motivation. It will also entails the meaning of motivational technique for employee satisfaction, significance of understanding human needs, motivational strategies such as job enlargement, job rotation and ,you enrichment as well as path needed motivation concept.
Chapter three: This chapter deals with research design and sampling plan. Source of data collection, type, of questionnaire method to be adopted, coding procedures, analytical procedure, the sample intend to use in the research work will be LASACO Assurance Plc. Therefore, to company, the survey probability sampling method that this randomization principle we use property representation.
The source of data collection will be both primary and secondary source. The questionnaire will be distributed to the respondent, the questionnaire will comprises of close ended. Question and open-ended construction which will be five likert scale. The interview method will be carried out for the interview of obtaining certain information.
Chapter four: This chapter deals with the administration of data collection instrument, presentation of coding to the research questionnaire, the data analysis. The focus of this chapter is on Assessment of staff motivation as panacea for improved organizational productivity. This is to assess the relevance and application of motivational theories as well as it is proper mix to inspire workers to high performance and commitment in the organization under consideration.
Chapter five: the final chapter present summary of the entire thesis. Also findings and conclusion of the study are discussed based on the findings and recommendation are made with hope that ifadopted, it may improve productivity and commitment in a work setting such as the LASACO Assurance. Plc.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Employee: One who works for an employer i.e a person who works for a person or company in return for wages.
Employer: An employer is any one or company that employs people.
Job: A paid position of regular employment, get a part time job as a gardner, a particular piece of work, a task, as., responsibility duty or function, a thing that is completed.
Management: The control and making a decision in a business or similar organization. .
Motivation: Most people said pay was their main motivation for working. To motivate i.e to cause to act in a particular way to be reason for an action.
Productivity: The rate or efficiency of work done in industrial production measured by comparing the amount produced with the time taken or the resources used to product it.
Organization: It is social entity where individuals interact in order to achieve specific goals by means of differentiated function and relationship that are intended to be rationally coordinated on a continuous basis.
Bankole, Akanji (2000), “Principles of Personnel Management”, Lagos: Fadec Publisher.
Cook, P & Jackson, N. (2005), “Motivation Matter, Chartered Management Institute”, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company Inc.
Mullins, L. J. (2007) “Management and Organization Development” London: Prentice Hall.
Oyedijo Ade (2008), “Organization Theory and Behaviour”, Lagos: Strategic International Press Ltd.