1.1 Background to the Study
Over the years, Nigeria has experienced series of attacks and blast in most region of the country.
The violent agitation by Militants in the Niger Delta region (MEND) has often led to loss of lives and properties otherwise known as “Movement for Emancipation of Niger Delta. So many spirited groups hide under this body to carry out their nefarious acts of rebellion govern the Nigerian state to express their governances over the degradations of the operation of the multinational organization.
Similarly, there are groups that exist in other parts of the country and they include; the “Odua People’s Congress (OPC) which is located in the South-West. They are often called the Afenifere group. There exists also the “Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), in the South-East while the “Boko Haram” uses the Northern part of the country as their operational base.
This research study will critically scrutinize and evaluate the activities of the latter amongst the above mentioned political and or religious sects, because that is the thrust of this research.
It can be said that socio-political development are instrumental to the incessant crisis that has bedeviled our beloved country Nigeria today. People are said to be poor when they experience lack of sufficient income to purchase material needs which often excludes individuals from partaking in generally accepted activities of daily life in the society at large.
Boko Haram as the name implies, does not have one particular meaning. The name more or less connotes different meanings to different people. The group is a Nigerian Islamic group that seeks the imposition of Sharia Law throughout the w hole of Nigeria. Figuratively members of this group believe that “Western education is a sin”.
Presently, the group has an undefined structure and chain of command. It is of a paramount importance to note that the official name of the group is Jama‟ atu Ahlis Sunna, Lidda‟ await Wal-Jihad”, which means or rather is tantamount to “People committed to the propagation of the prophet’s teaching and Jihad”.
Since its formation in 2002 in Maiduguri by the leader of the group Mohammed Yusuf, the Boko Haram has been a thorn in the flesh of Nigeria’s security agencies, precisely the police force, over its opposition to western education that it believes is a sin. In the year 2004, the Islamic fundamentalist group relocated its base to Kanamma, Yobe State. The new location was named “Afghanistan”, and from there, the group set about attacking and leaving members of the Nigerian Police Lifeless.
The various crises due to bombings carried out by the Boko Haram are:
- The Nigeria sectarian violence in the year 2009.
- The Bauchi Prison Break on the 7th of September 2010
- Abuja attack on the 31st of December, 2010
- Northern Nigeria bombings on the 29th of May, 2011
- Abuja Police headquarters bombing on the 16th of June, 2011.
- Bombing at the All Christian Fellowship Church in Suleja, Niger State on the 10th of July, 2011.
- Bombing of the Abuja United nations Building on the 26th of August, 2011.
- Damaturu attacks on Friday, November 4th 2011.
- St. Theresa Catholic Church attack in Madalla at Suleja, Niger State on the 25th of December 2011.
- Kano attacks on 20th of January, 2012
- Suicide bombing at the Army Headquarters in Kaduna on the 8th of February, 2012.
- June – 9, 2013 children are killed in Maiduguri and 13 students and teachers are killed in Damaturu by Boko Haram
- Boko Haram raids Damaturu. At least 128 people are killed (95 militants, 23 soldiers, 8 policemen, and 2 civilians)
- February 25 - Federal Government College attack, 59 students killed in a school massacre in Yobe State.
- March 14 - Boko Haram attacks the heavily fortified Giwa military barracks in Maiduguri, freeing comrades from a detention facility. The military then executes about 600 unarmed recaptured detainees, according to Amnesty International.
- April 14 - April 2014 Abuja bombing, over 88 people killed in a twin bombing attack in Abuja.
- April 15 - Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping, 276 female students in Borno State are kidnapped by Boko Haram.
- January 9 - Refugees flee Nigeria's Borno State following the Boko Haram massacre in the town of Baga. 7,300 flee to neighbouring Chad while over 1,000 are trapped on the island of Kangala in Lake Chad. Nigeria's army vows to recapture the town, while Niger and Chad withdraw their forces from a transnational force tasked with combating militants.
- July 1–2 - July Mosque Massacres — Boko Haram militants attacked multiple mosques between July 1 and 2. Forty-eight men and boys were killed on the 1st at one mosque in Kukawa. Seventeen were wounded in the attack. Ninety-seven others, mostly men, were killed in numerous mosques on the 2nd, with a number of women and young girls killed in their homes. An unknown number were wounded.
- July 5 - A suicide bomber attacks a church in the Potiskum area of Nigeria's Yobe State, killing five.
- July 6 - Two bomb attacks on the central Nigerian city of Jos have left at least 44 people dead.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is no longer new that the activities of the Boko Haram and other similar political and or religious sects have often led to loss of properties, lives, and even the breakdown of laws and order, peace and security in the Nigerian society at large.
It has been observed that a lot of attacks have been made onto many states, which include even the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. What puzzles most observers is the fact that most of these attacks are not carried out by suicide bombers yet the culprits often get away unharmed.
This leaves a big question mark in our security agencies as regards to their duty in the protection of lives and properties, and the procurement of weapons of mass destruction to combat this menace which is eating deep into the Nigerian society today. Without being said, Boko Haram crisis do not have any advantage instead it is a vicious and nefarious act carried out by individuals for their selfish desires, the motivating factor being to control the religious and political power.
However, it is the above stated problems that instigated the researcher into investigating on the topic “Security challenges and its implication on national development in nigeria using boko haram sects as case study”
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main thrust of this study is to determine Boko Haram and its implication on National development of Nigeria to achieve this, the researcher has the following objectives:
- To ascertain the remote and immediate causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
- To ascertain the national implication of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria. To make suggestions to the federal government on how to tackle the Boko Haram crisis.
- To make suggestion to the federal government on how to tackle the Boko haram crisis.
1.4 Significance of the Study
There are numerous reasons why this research is useful, the research work would be of great importance to students and lectures in practice of how to carry out further research in the same area. It will help the government to solve some likely problems that might encounter in terms of development in Nigeria.
Also, the research will act as a guide to the government in their quest to quell the problems associated with security, ethnic crisis and political or religious crisis in Nigeria.
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scope of this research study is quite broad that it encompasses the investigation of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria from the year 2002 till date. This is because of its sudden nature.
In view of the limitations of this study, various factors contributed in affecting the researcher’s comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out the study. Among these factors include, scarcity of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature, financial constraints, some questionnaire administered were not returned and most of the respondents failed to respond to some important questions and other tasking campus engagements and the fact that the crisis was still occurring at the period of research.
Despite the above mentioned short comings and hindrances, the research study no doubt turned out to be successful.
1.6 Statement of Hypotheses
For the purpose of this study this hypothesis were formulated;
H0: Poverty and unemployment is not the causes the Boko Haram insurgence
H1: Poverty and unemployment causes the Boko Haram insurgence
H0: Boko Haram insurgence does not lead to disunity of a country.
H1: Boko haram insurgence lead to disunity of a country.
1.7 Definition of Operational Terms
Boko Haram: The term Boko Haram is a derivation of Hausa word “Boko” meaning “Animist” western or otherwise non-Islamic education‖, while Haram is a word with Arabic origin that figuratively means “sin” but literally, “forbidden”. In order words, Boko Harm means “western education is forbidden or is a sin”.
Violence: Violence is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the international use of physical force of power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injuries, death psychological harm, mal development or deprivation.
National Security: National security is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy, prosperity and well being.
Development: The act or process of bringing to a more advanced state, growth, progress etc. it is also the gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced and stronger etc.