MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1.0 Background of the Study
The Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) originates from Millennium Declaration produced by the United Nations. The Declaration asserts that every individual has the right to dignity, freedom, equality, a basic standard of living that includes freedom from hunger and violence, encourages tolerance and solidarity (Deneulin, Séverine and Shahani, 2009). The MDGs were made to operationalize these ideas by setting targets and educational strategies in order to achieve the rights set forth in the Declaration on a set fifteen – year timeline.
According to Nwankwo (2002), the Millennium Summit Declaration was, however, only parts of the origins of the MDGs. It came about from not just the United Nation but also the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The setting came about through a series of UN – led conferences in the 1990s focusing on issues such as children, nutrition, education, human rights and others. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) criticized major donors for reducing their levels of Official Development Assistance (ODA). With the onset of the UN’s 50th anniversary, then UN secretary general Kofi Anam saw the need to address the range of development issues. This led to his report titled, we the people: The role of the United Nations in the 21st century which led to the Millennium Declaration. By this time, the OECD had already formed its International Development Goals (IDGs) and it was combined with the UN’s efforts and the World Bank’s 2001 meeting to form the MDGs (Hulme and Scott, 2010).
However, the Millennium Development Goals is one of the global efforts towards enhancing the living standard of man. The aim is to improve the social and economic conditions in the world’s poorest countries through reduction of extreme poverty and hunger, child mortality rates, achieving universal primary education, improvement of maternal health, ensuring environmental sustainability, combating HIV-AIDs, malaria and other diseases, promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women, besides developing a global partnership for development. This study focuses on educational development as a means towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria.
1.1 Statement of the Problems
Despite all the numerous efforts made by the government of Nigeria towards educational development, the educational sector is besieged by infrastructural decay, dilapidation of structures and production/graduation of illiterate graduate. The monumental increase in the level of illiteracy has made the socio-economic landscape fail and fragile. Today, Nigeria is ranked among the countries with the highest population of illiteracy in the whole world. The failure to efficiently combat the problem has largely been blamed on infrastructural decay, endemic corruption and poor governance.
As a result of these, the study x-rays educational challenges being faced in Nigeria, particularly Anambra State with respect to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
To justify the Millennium Development Goals and educational development in Nigeria, the following are the purpose.
- To determine the extent to which Millennium Development Goals has con tribute towards education al development in Nigeria.
- To clearly define the positive achievements credited to MDGs towards infrastructural development in the educational sector.
- To showcase how the MDGs overcomes challenges in achieving their goals.
1.3 Research Questions
In order to get the required in formation for the research work, the following questions were posed.
- To what extent has Millennium Development Goals contributed to educational development in Nigeria?
- Are there positive achievements credited to MDGs toward infrastructural development in the educational sector?
- Of what relevance is MDGs towards educational development in Nigeria?
1.4 Theoretical framework
The classical theory, also known as the traditional theory of organisation or management has been used as the analytical tool for this work because the tenets of the theory tie with the work in question. This theory was propounded by Fredrick c. Taylor, Henry Fayol, Max Weber, L.Urwick, James.C. Moneny and Pveiley and breach in the late 19th century part of 20th century. This theory views the organization in terms of its purpose and formal structure. It places emphasis on the planning of how the technical requirements of the organization, and principal of management, there assumption of national and logical behaviour, it was thought that clear understanding of the purpose of the organisation is essential to understand how the organization works out its methods of working can be improved. Identification of general objectives would leads to the clarification of purpose and responsibilities at all levels of the organization and to the most attention to the division of works, the clear definition of duties and responsibilities, specialization and co-ordination. They laid emphasis on hierarchy of management and formal organizational relationship.
The classical writers were concerned with improving the organization structure as a means of increasing efficiency. They laid emphasis on the importance of principal for design of a logical structure of organization. They saw these general solutions to common problems of organisation and management.
Relating the tenets of this theory to the challenges of millennium development goals and educational development in Nigeria, one will notice that the purpose of MGDS is to actualize specific development goals that are geared towards national development. This theory works at the clarification of purposes and responsibilities at all level of an institution, to ensure credible and perfect implementation of MDGS, hence achieving the aims of MDGS.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Since illiteracy is a serious threat to achieving g the Millennium Development Goals, this work is significant because it proffers solutions to the menace of illiteracy and pave a way for the actualization of the MDGs.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is Millennium Development Goals and educational development in Nigeria, the study of Anambra State.
1.7 Limitation of the study
The limitation inherent in this work entails lack of fund, problem of inadequate information and non-availability of electricity. The researcher resorted to fund sourcing from friends and relatives, sourced information from textbooks using the library and the internet. Pertaining to electricity the researcher did more work in the day rather than at night.
1.7 Definition of terms
Declaration- this is an official or formal statement, especially about the plans of a government or an organization.
Goals-this can be described as an achievement or achievements of an individual or company hopes to attain.
Summit- this is an official meeting or series of meetings between the leaders of two or more government, at which they discuss important matters