1.1. Background to the Study
Multimedia is a term frequently heard and discussed among educational technologists today. Unless clearly defined, the term can alternatively mean the development of computer based hardware and software packages produced on a mass scale and yet allow individualized use and learning. In essence, multimedia merges multiple levels of learning into an educational tool that allows for diversity in curricula presentation. Mayer (2001) views multimedia as the exciting combination of computer hardware and software that allows you to integrate video, animation, audio graphics and test resources to develop effective presentation on an affordable desktop computer. But Philips (1990) opines that “Multimedia is characterized by the presence of text, pictures, sound animation and video, some or all of which are organized into some colorant programme. However, today’s multimedia is a carefully woven combination of text, graphic, sound, animation and video elements. If the end user is allowed i.e. the viewer of a multimedia project, is allowed to control “what ““when” and ’’how’’ the elements are presented, it becomes interactive multimedia.
As such, multimedia can be defined as an integration of multiple media elements (audio, video, graphic, text animation, etc.) into one synergetic and symbiotic whole that results in more benefit for the end user than any of the media element can provide individually.
At the inception of the 6-3-3-4 system of education, Fine and Applied Arts where the study of ceramics is subsumed was a core subject at the junior secondary school level, but elective at the senior secondary.
After the review of the National Policy on Education, Fine Arts remained one of the core subjects that all students must register for at the junior secondary school level. However, good as the policy is, there are factors militating against the successful implementation of the policy. They include: lack of relevant and up-to-date teaching materials, space, facilities, shortage of qualified and experienced Fine Art teachers. In addition, many of the current graduates are found to be lacking in creativity, communication skills, analytical and critical thinking and problem-solving skill which is occurred from juniorsecondaryschools level (Teo Wong 200). As such, there is much need for institutions of higher learning to focus on training future graduate to be more adaptable to the needs of the industry from the SecondarySchool level.
Currently, many juniorsecondaryschools in OsunState are employing problem-based learning as a panacea to building creativity, analytical thinking and problem solving skills. Hence, some schools have embraced the use of multimedia for enhancing the production of ceramics such as mug, cup, jug, flower vase, pottery tiles, etc. This attempt is a laudable one as it makes students in their junior secondary school level acquire the necessary skill and knowledge before getting to the higher institution. This learning mode is constructivistapproach whereby the students participate actively in their own learning process and construct their own knowledge (Jonasseu and Willson 1999).
The uses of multimedia in teaching and learning ceramics have been foundeffective in increasing knowledge, skills and retention rates. Research has shown that people remember 20% of what they see, 40% of what they see and hear, but about 75% of what they see, hear and do simultaneously (Lindstron1994).This is especially significant in the CBT (Computer Based Learning) modules in corporations like Ernst& Young and Union Pacific, where students are taught ceramic artwork in the juniorsecondaryschool level.
It is now permeating the educational system as a tool for effective teaching and learning. With multimedia, communication of the information can be done in a more effective manner and it can be an effective instructional medium for delivering information. A multi-sensory experience can be created for the audience, which in turn elicits positive attitudes towards the application. Multimedia has also been shown to elicit the highest rate of information retention and shorter learning time (Ng and Komiya, 2000). On the part of the designer, designing a multimedia application that is interactive and multi-sensory can be both a challenge and a thrill. Multimedia application design offers new insights into the learning process of the designer and forces him or her to represent information and knowledge in a new and innovative way in teaching and learning ceramics (Agnew, Keller man and Meyer 1996).
The increasing use of multimedia in teaching and learning of ceramics to students in juniorsecondaryschools is an issue that should receive adequate governmentattention. Even the majority of teachers believe that the nation’sschools will be improved if the federal government could put in place educational policies whichwill encourage students to learn ceramics art subject as their career (kichatdson 1993). However, the quest for using multimedia in teaching and learning of ceramics would not be easily accomplished without understanding the obstacles into implementation of teaching and learning of ceramics and how to overcome them.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
It has been observed Fine Art as a subject as a subject in the junior secondary schools in Nigeria faces severe problems in relation to its curriculum content and delivery by the Fine Art teachers. However it is unfortunate to observe that Ceramics as an area in Fine Art has been neglected by the learners and its content delivery by teachers has not been that impressive.
Similarly, it has been observed by some researchers that teaching and learning of Fine Art, which the study ceramics is subsumed in, in secondary schools was bedeviled with multi-dimensional problems which impede successful implementation of the curriculum. At the centre, the most clear learning problems are the teachers who are ill-equipped for the task ahead, unqualified, complexity of the curriculum, inadequacy of instructional facilities for example, multimedia facilities.
In view of the above, this research work is set to solve the problems of both academic failureand practical experiences in teaching and learning ceramics in Fine Art and improve the academic performance of students through the use of multimedia facilities in teaching the curriculum of Fine Art as a subject by finding out the level of the utilization of multimedia facilities in teaching and learning ceramics in the juniors secondaryschools in Osun State.
The general objective of this study is to investigatethe utilization ofmultimedia in teaching and learning of ceramics in juniorsecondaryschools in Osun State.
The specific objectives of this study are to:
- investigate the available multimedia facilities in schools for the teaching and learning of ceramics;
- determine the level of utilization of multimedia facilities in teaching and learning ceramics;
- examine the limitations and challenges of teachers and students in the use of multimedia in teaching and learning ceramics;
- find out the perceptions of the teachers and students towards teaching and learning ceramics with the aid of multimedia.
1.4 Research Questions
Towards the attainment of the objectives of this study, the study intends to provide answers to the following questions:
- are there available multimedia facilities in schools for the teaching and learning ceramics?;
- what is the level of utilization of multimedia facilities in teaching and learning ceramics?;
- what are the limitations and challenges of teachers and students using multimedia in teaching and learning ceramics?; and
- what are the perceptions of the teachers and students towards teaching and learning ceramics with the aid of multimedia?
1.5. Significance of the Study
The result of this study will be significant through the following ways:
The findings will help policy makers realize that the world is becoming a global village with varieties of multimedia facilities that can enhance teaching andlearning. It will serve as a compass for government and School administrators in the process of policies formulation and implementation. Both the teachers and students in schools will also find this research study very useful in the process of making some vital classroom decision through use of multimedia.
This study will serve as an opener to both multimedia and ceramics art subject teachers,as well as students. It will make meaningful reflections on the various factors that are responsible for excellent academic performance of students in teaching and learning of ceramics in the juniorsecondaryschool.
School teachers will be able to know how helpful multimedia immensely contribute to the effectiveness of teaching and learning of ceramic JuniorSecondarySchool level with their efforts to build a better Nigerian by giving qualitative education to the younger ones.
The government at different levels will be able to see the critical appraisal of multimedia involvement in the educational system and thereby encouraging them to participate in the sector.
Also, on a final note, educators, teachers School administrators will benefit from the finding of this research work in their adventurous of improving the academic performance of students.
The study is on the investigation into the use of multimedia in teaching and learning ceramics junior secondary school in Osun State. The research shall be restricted to students and teachers in public junior secondary schools in Osun State.
1.7. Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study, the following terms will be used. They include:
Art:Art is a reflection of how individual expresses his or her own inner feeling or emotion. It is also known as the individual’s ability to manipulate art materials to express his or her emotion on a flat surface whether in the two or three dimensional way.
Ceramics: Ceramics is known as art objects such as flower vases, tiles, and tableware’setc.made from clay and other raw materials by the process of pottery. Some ceramics products are regarded as fine art, while others are regarded as decorative, industrial or applied art objects or as artifacts in archaeology.
Instructional resources:This is things used to meet an educational need i.e. building, staff, equipment, ideas and materials. In other words, instructional resources aredevices used to enhance intellectual development.
Multimedia: It refers to content that uses a combination of different content forms. This contracts with media that use only rudimentary computer display such as text only or traditional forms of printed or hand produced material. It can also be refers to as a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, or interactivity content forms
Educational resources: This comprise of varieties of input materials in the educational system. They may include teacher,non-teaching staff, facilities and equipment as well as other monetary inputs used in the educational system.
SecondaryEducation:Secondary education is a form of education children received after the primary school and before the tertiary education. Government planned that secondary education should be of six years duration and shall be given in two stages of three years duration each. This implies that the students will pass through the JuniorSecondarySchool (JSS) and sit for the JuniorSecondarySchool examination before being awarded the JuniorSchoolCertificate. In the same vein, the successful JuniorSchool Certificate examination (JSCE) graduates are admitted into the Senior SecondarySchool (SSS) and aspired to do the West African Senior SchoolCertificate Examination (WASSCE) and/ or the National Examination Council (NECO) to obtain Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE).
JuniorSecondarySchool: It can be defined as the first three years of children in the SecondarySchool level in which simply known as JuniorSecondarySchool before he/she sits for the JuniorSecondary Certificate Examination and being awarded the JuniorSchool Certificate (JSC).
Teaching method:This is the different ways in which teacher employed to impart knowledge on the studentsor learners. They include among others, demonstration method, lecture method, discussion method etc.