EFFECTIVENESS OF PHOTOGRAPHY AS A TEACHING METHOD FOR SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA (A case study of selected Secondary Schools in Egor LGA, Edo State)
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The foundational history of the use of photography could be traced to 1950’s when the photo type block for copying line subjects, engraving manuscripts and photographic reproduction into books was invented. Ogedengbe (2002) reports that colour photo prints can be a source of help to students in Secondary Schools to develop the ability to compose effectively and increase the performance level in their studies. Rheinhold Thiele’s (2000) supports the adoption of photograph unto teaching and learning. She was a press photographer who made photo prints of six hundred and eleven (611) subjects of the Natal Campaign for the Navy and the Army. She also covered the Russo-Japanese war and the Boer war. And many of the documented photographs that were left over were later adopted for educational purpose with more research works into the uses of photography especially for teaching and learning purposes. Learners’ academic performances have been increased through the use of photography. Bower and Spaulding (2000) in a research study on simple reading materials concluded that a sequence of picture can be effectively used for communicating new idea and to increase learners’ performance if the pictures are used together with verbal face to face explanation.
Fonsesca and Karle (1960) explained that recognizable and familiar objects presented in a sequence of photo prints enhance comprehension and better performance. Travers (2003) shows that photographic prints can be used to improve the performance of a lawn tennis player. According to Hudson and Hector (1963) photography and pictorial illustration accompanied with verbal explanation have increased the level of performance of cocoa farmer in Ghana. Sofowora (1994) contributes that the comprehension of a process involving series of actions is possible if photographs are used.
Chaplain (1960) working on a science education research project contributes that instruction when given largely with numerous sequence of photo prints helps to convey adequate scientific information and instruction. Photographic study thus offers an excellent opportunity for learning the challenge of accurate description.
Arundale (2005) reports from his study that learners were able to retain a great part of the lesson content when oral teaching are linked with a sequence of photographs. It also shows that the students in the experimental group performed better and were able to recall the various experiences they acquired in their projects than those in the control group. Spaulding (1955) was of the opinion that colour photo prints are real life situation that help the retention of what has been learnt. Adeosun (1986) explained that students that were exposed to pictures were able to retain and recall a greater part of the lesson content than those that were taught without the use of picture.
Franden (1961) showed that a sequence of pictures and pictorial illustration make learning real, more meaningful and reinforces the learning materials for easy assimilation and retention. John and Litcher (2000) in their experiment concluded that four months after exposing the students to multi-racial pictures the attitude of the students changed towards other races.
Working with photographs also adds another layer of complexity to the lessons, because every photograph was created at one point in time, in a particular place, of a chosen subject, by a particular photographer, for a specific purpose, and using a particular technology. All these elements has made learning an unforgettable experience when adopting the photography teaching method.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Several secondary schools in Nigeria are facing serious problems in the area of teaching and learning. Among the problems are poor methods of teaching, lack of relevant instructional materials; negative attitude of the parents and the students towards the subject and shortage of qualified teachers. Several other studies conducted outside Nigeria revealed that the use of photography teaching method will enhance teaching and learning. The researcher is of the believe that photography teaching method can be used as a panacea to the problem of poor performance in secondary school.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
- To examine the effectiveness of photography as a teaching method in Secondary schools in Nigeria.
- To determine the relationship between photography teaching method and student’s academic performance in secondary schools in Nigeria.
- To determine the relationship between photography teaching method and student’s retention level in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is the effectiveness of photography as a teaching method in Secondary schools in Nigeria?
- What is the relationship between photography teaching method and student’s academic performance in secondary schools in Nigeria?
- What is the relationship between photography teaching method and student’s retention level in secondary schools in Nigeria?
HO: There is no significant relationship between photography teaching method and student performance in secondary schools in Nigeria.
HA: There is significant relationship between photography teaching method and student performance in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
- The results from this study will enlighten the administrators in the education sector and the general public on the benefits of photography teaching method and its impact on performance and effectiveness.
- This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. It will also cover the effectiveness of photography as a teaching method as reflected in the academic performance of secondary school students.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work