1.1 BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY
The reason for banks striving to improve their profitability are obvious and varied. In this era of competitions, there is need for organizations, banks business enterprises churches, clubs etc. to evolve procedures to improve their performance to the benefits of their consumers and kowing fully well that times have change and also the creams of cutomers.
For bamks the need as more pronounced especially when they are faced with what we call institution and inter bank competition, which a times head to the declining profit margin of many banks consequent upon some factors as inflation and tight money supply measures of the permanent. The needs for competitions among banks and other public relations programs geared towards building good corporate image for their respective banks. Nigeria banks have recognized that effective public relations has become the integrating force which interprets their environment to the bank management, defines objective and building good will through good deeds. In furtherance of these objectives, many banks in Nigeria have introduced extra incentive such as credit cards, weekend banking organization all in attempt to provide exceptional services for their customers and to retain old customers, attract potential depositors and win public understanding. These banks adopting to change trends by creating effective public relations department as a tool to boost cooperate image are currently experiencing increases.
1.2 HISTORICAL ROLES OF BANKING IN THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY
Banks can be defined as an institution in which individuals keeps, exchange and transact money. Banking as an industry is impossible in a non-monitored economy. The growth of banks in the former British west Africa (Nigeria inclusive) did not start until the introduction of the British coinage and currency system in late 19th century.
Banking business was first introduced in Nigeria in 1892. the first bank in Nigeria was the African Banking Corporation from 1892 banking activities started striving with life competition between rival banks. This was free banking era. It was characterized by non existence of banking legislation. Any body could set up bank provided he is registered under the provision of companies ordinance. The ordinance prohibited formation of a banking company unless it was registered as a company.
This period witnessed the establishment of the banks of British west Africa (BBWA), Barday Bank, Dominion Colonial and oversea bank, British and French banks, National bank of Nigeria and African continental bank limited.
In 1894, the BBWA was established in Lagos it took over the service of African Banking corporation. It remained the only bank in the country until it was joined by barday in 1912. another expatriate bank of this free banking period was British and French banks limited established in 1949 and presently called United Bank for Africa (UBA). The National Bank of Nigeria established by government of the western Nigeria on 11th February 1933 has distinatioon of the first successful indigenous banks was the Africa Continental bank limited. Three other indigenous banks were the Nigeria pioneer and commercial banks limited, Agbonagbe bank limited and the Merchant bank, there were seven banks which survived the free banking era. However, the banks failed were industrial and commercial banks. Nigeria mercantile bank and the Nigeria perry banks by 1988, all mushroom bank had collapse except Agbonmagbe bank, merchant bank, National bank of Nigeria and three expatriates banks. They survived the banking boom of the late 1940s and early 1990s. these banks were established primarily to make profit. This explains the dissemination in heading in the early periods of their development. The main purpose of banks in the economy was to help business increase their output by providing the essential service of liquidating flow and expert advice investment.
According to the preposition of financial system review committed of 1976 sack of five objectives are expected for the banks. The bank should actively facilitate the transformation of the normal environment by promoting and rapid expansion of banking facilities, services and banking habits in minimal commodities, most importantly, they will sere as vehicles for the creation of credit in the rural areas, in the form of equity and loans for small scale farmers and entrepreneurs
Secondly, banks should remain consistent with the banking prudence, increasingly undertaking more medium and long term investment planning for the application of the procedure.
Thirdly, they should confirm with the national objectives and identify fall with Nigeria inspirations by taking more active part in the financing of the economy programme of national priority, consequently their sensitive position in the financial system necessitates that they should be brought under Nigeria control with the ownership and management.
Fourthly, decision making in the main commercial banking sector must be localized. This would have the possibility of our major banking institution being manipulated to the disadvantages of the Nigeria economy.
Finally, the bank should use a significant part their profit to improve the quality of services being offered to the above national object expected of the banks.
1.3 THE PLACE OF THE PUBLIC RELATION IN NIGERIA
Public Relations practices in Nigeria can be grouped into two categories which are pre-colonial and independence period in the pre-colonial era public Relation outlet originated from the inscriptions on the walls of ideologies on mind of people who came to grace ceremonial occasions. During this period, oral media such as town criers, messengers and palace dancers were used to the advantages and good image making of the clients Oba’s and Emirs.
The institutionalization of the public relations as the concept of management characterized the colonial phase of public relations as can attested to the establishment of the ministry of information, which was solely charged with the propagation of the white man’s cause in Lagos.
Public relations as a modern practice started with civil service at Lagos, Enugu Kaduna and Ibandan. These offices served as persuasion out of points. The Lagos office of the ministry of information (Public Relations) was at 20 camp ell street Lagos. In 1932, radio was used to propagate information by colonial government, but s at 1944, the name of the office was changed to public Relations office which was reverted to ministry of information in later years. Commercial public relations started by UAC, Leventis UTC and other multi-National which helped a lot in the development of media public relation in Nigeria publications and circulation of newspapers, magazine and printing of photographs were the initial activities of public relations event.
UAC published the “Devine” in two Nigeria languages (Igbo and Yoruba) as well as in English. A publications called “the Nigerian children own” was published and circulated by ministry of information.
The modern public relations was named up with the Emergency of Nigeria institution of public relations. The affiliation of this union to Institute of Public Relations Association. (IPRA) and Federation of Advertising and public Relation Association (FAPRA) makes Nigeria public Relation practitioners members of such international bodies.
Apparently public relations in Nigeria was still developing when United Bank for Africa (UBA) was established in 1974. the incorporation of public relation activities in the bank look off proper in 1993
1.4 UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA
United bank for Africa Nigeria PLC was incorporated as public liability company with an automation capital share which was subsequently increased by #120 million. The 20,000,000 ordinary share of #1.00 each has been issued and fully paid. The bank was issued a license to carry on with the banking business on June 12, 1978. it commercial business on June 29, 1982 United Bank for Africa PLC (UBA) is ninety owned by the state government and private Nigerian investors. The share holding structure are as follows. Enugu and Anambra state government 35% Nigerian private investors 65% the united bank head office is located in Enugu, the state capital and other various states.
Accordingly, the bank is committed to the expansion of its branch network with a view of making its services available throughout the country. For now, the bank has branches in Enugu, Onitsha, Lagos Kano here also Imo and other states. The bank here also embarked on a computerization programme in order to enhance the effective of its services.
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS.
Research is carried out to identify and solve a problem hence the identification of these problems gives direction to the research work. In this case, the problems centers on how public relations unit functions effectively in the banking sector of the economic and further discuss how public relation unit have helped to improve banks profitability with special emphasis on the united bank for Africa (UBA) Enugu.
1.6 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
- The study is to properly ascertain how public relations which is an innovation in the banking sector improves bank profitability.
- To find out how public relations in banks can be used in improving contact with this associate institute of bankers, trade unions business community government policies and employees.
- To find out how United Bank for Africa (UBA) Public relations department function effectively.
- To make recommendations on public relations activities in commercial banks based on research finding in United bank for Africa (UBA) and public relation Department.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work is aimed at offering an insight into the impact of public relations in commercial banking so as to reveal its pitfalls and success. The insight question can be used to make useful inference on the performance of public relations programmes in commercial bank, merchant bank and public bank (CBN)
Investigating the operation problems of the public relations in banks will sensitize policy, made to work out remedies for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the bank image making department.
1.8 RESEARCH QUESTION
- Is the public relations department of the UBA able to improve effectively in its profitability.
- Is the public relation department of the UBA been able to promote their services to the development of the nations economy.
- Are you satisfied with the services of the public relations department of the UBA
- Is the public relation department of the UBA portraying the good image of the bank.
1.9 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H1: The public relations department of the UBA has a very high profitability output.
Ho: The public relations department of UBA has not a very high profitability output.
H2: The public relations department of the UBA portrays good corporate image of the bank.
Ho: The public relations department of UBA does not portray good corporate image of the bank.
H3: The public relations department of the UBA has effectively contributed to the development of the nations economy.
Ho: The public relation department of the UBA has not effectively contributed to the development of the nation’s economy.
H4: The public relations department of UBA do not posses high quality customers services.
Ho: The public relation department of the UBA does not posses high quality customer services.
1.10 DEFINITION AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
CONCEPTIONNAL PUBLIC RELATIONS:- This public conduct of the affairs of an organization with regards to its reputation and standing in public opinion.
OPERATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS:- The activities and techniques reputations among its public
CONCEPTIONAL ACTIVITIES:- Any form of techniques employed by UBA bank in influencing customers and promoting good will and favorably reputation among its public.
CONCEPTIONAL PROFITABILITY:- An extra incentive or motivation strategy employed by UBA in order to make more gain
CONCEPTIONAL TWO:- Ways communication act of communication between two persons and groups etc. in which with participating equality
OPERATIONAL TWO WAY COMMUNICATION:- A strategy used by UBA bank to pass information between the management, staff and its customers (vice versa)
CONCEPTIONAL INFORMATION FLOW:- Message or knowledge passed freely between people
OPERATIONAL INFORMATION FLOW:- The free movement of message passed between the staff, customers and management of UBA
CONCEPTIONAL STAFISFCATION:- This is the gratification or conduct customers derive from banking with UBA
It is assumed that the respondents to the questionnaires are informed enough to understand the questionnaire since attempts were made to frame questions to be as simply as possible.
It was also assumed in this study that single of the population will be a representative one, since the organization under study is a commercial bank. The result got from the sample will be used to generate the entire commercial bank in the nation.