There has been a lot of observations and comments on the effect of computer as it relates to the accounting profession in Nigeria.
According to professor Longe “Computers are being used to assist in the management of major areas of the computers are under utilized and in several areas the uses are yet rudimentary”.
In the accounting yet rudimentary” story is the same. It has, therefore becomes necessary to know the effect of computer on the accounting profession, to determine whether computer does have effect on the accounting professional and perform task with maximum speed and accuracy which will make the job of the account staff a lot easier or they are under utilized, despite the immense benefits derivable from their optimum utilization.
With the advent of computer-based accounting system, accountants have to cope with the resulting complexity of the flow of information through the accounting systems. Traditional accounting procedures did not accommodate the sophisticated processing devices that came with the computer-based accounting system.
As the design of the computer based accounting system advanced from simple clerical automation to complicated integrated information systems, the accountant could no longer perform his duties around the computer but found it necessary to develop procedures to cope with the new challenges.
Furthermore, the traditional accountant was not trained in the special languages and devices used in the computer based system. Accordingly, a chartered accountant and professional organizations to educate the accountant to functions effecting in a computer based accounting system. Therefore in the course of the study. Efforts will be made to establish the effect of computer on the accounting profession.
Finally, I have the conviction that he efforts expended in this study will be a worthwhile investment. This is further strengthened by the fact that this study will serve a springboard and basis for further studies on the relationship between the computer and the accounting profession and other related topics in the future.
1.1 MANUAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM
Manual data processing has existed as long as man has walked this planet. It continuous to exist today in every organization and is major form of data processing for many small business firms. The earliest methods of manual data processing included the use of fingers, stones and stick for counting and knots on a string, scratches on a rock or notches in a stick as record keeping devices. The Babylonians wrote on clay tablets with a sharp stick, while the ancient Egyptians developed written records on papyrus using a sharp pointed reed a pen and organic dyes for ink. The earliest form of manual calculating device was the Abacus. The use of pebbles or ords laid out on a lined or grooved board were early forms of the Abacus and were utilized for thousands of years in many civilizations. The abacus in it present form originated in china and still a widely calculator.
Manual data processing techniques contributed ot progress over the centuries due to developments such as Arabic numerals, the decimal system, the manufacture of paper, the printing press, the slide rule and double –entry book keeping to name a few. Manual data processing systems of today employ tools and materials that have been used for several hundred years such as pencil, pens, rulers paper record keeping, forms, folders and filing cabinets.
More recent development which have been tools and materials such as multiple copy forms, carbon paper, accounting pegboards and notched cards.