IMPACT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON CAREER CHOICE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Family is a place in which children learn to interpret realities (Wary and Passman, 1996) parents serve as significant interpreters to children for information about the world and children ability (Hall, Kelly, Hansen and Vulwein, 1996) family influence is an important force in preparing students for their role as workers. Young people form their attitude about work and career as a result of interaction with the family. Family background provides the basis on which a student’s career planning and decision making evolves. However, within each family, the level of involvement can very positively or negatively.
Family background factor found to be associated with career choice includes parents socio-economic status (SES), their level of education and biogenetics factor such as physical size, gender, ability and temperament, Panic and Jepson (1992), in a study on adolescent vocational development reported that had the most effect on education plans and occupational aspiration was education. Mortime et al (1992) also reported that parents with post secondary education tend to pass along its importance in their children a finding reported by other studies. Montgomery (1992) votes that students talented in mathematics viewed their career choice as reflective on the interest that stem from early family influence and educational opportunities.
De Piddeo (1990) however, points out that the lower level of parents education can retard adolescents career choice. Being born to parents with limited education and income reduces the likelihood of going to college or achieving a professionally and occupational goals and essentially predetermined the child’s likely career choice. Family income is another aspect of family background that influences the career choice of a student. Mortimer et al (1992) one reason for this may be that family with limited economic resources may tend to direct children first the older children in the family giving less hope and encouragement to the younger children in the family. It is therefore understandable that the self efficacy of students with respect to career opportunities is linked to the economic support they can expect from their parents. Another family background factor found to be associated with career choice include the parents spiritual/health parents who love Jesus and want the best for their children will urge their children to pursue a career that will bring them joy in the future. Thus proverbs 22:6 admonished parents to pay attention to their children while the children in turn should prove themselves obedient (Ephesians 6:13).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The standard of education in Nigeria today is gradually falling thus leading to lots of arrangements amongst scholars civil servants, educational planners etc as to what is the immediate and remote causes of the failure and the factors hindering high standard of education, while we may blame governments, teachers, and children, the family which students comes from leave much to be desired. It is important to note that we cannot exonerate the family that a child came from when talking about the students choice of career in secondary school. Family background factors found to have influence the students choice of career is based on parents socio-economic status, parents educational level, parents love for Jesus and family size and parents temperament.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of family background on occupational choice of secondary school students. Specific objectives of the study are:
1. To ascertain the degree in which socio-economic status of parents influence the career choice of students in secondary school.
2. To examine the relationship between the level of education of parents and the career choice of students in secondary schools
3. To determine if the size of a family have any influence on the choice of career of secondary school students.
4. To examine the relationship between living condition at family and choice of career of students.
5. To find out if the ability and temperament of parents affect the choice of career of students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In order to deal with the influence of family background on the career choice of secondary school students the following questions were asked:
1. To what degree does the socio-economic status of parents influence the career choice of students in secondary school?
2. Is there any relationship between the level of education of parents and the career choice of students in secondary schools?
3. Does the size of a family have any influence on the choice of career of secondary school students?
4. Is there any relationship between living condition at family and choice of career of students?
5. To what extend does the ability and temperament of parents affect the choice of career of students?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Students succeed in school when certain factors are put in place or put under control, some of these includes ensuring that the child feeds well at family, get enough rest, does his family work has his work checked by both his teachers and parents, has his school materials, gets adequate encouragement from their parents, useful information should be given the child to guide futures generation of choice of career. In the light of the above, the students will assist parents to have insight into the behavior and needs of their children. The study intends to reveal the factors that impedes or enhance the choice of students in secondary schools.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to secondary schools in Esan Central local government area of Edo State. In the realization of similar condition facing most students in other secondary schools in Edo State the survey shall focus on students in their first year and final year of studies.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
FAMILY: Is a unit comprising of husband, wife and children.
FAMILY SIZE: The number of people in the family.
FAMILY SYSTEM: This includes monogamy and may be nuclear or extended family.
HOME ENVIRONMENT: This refers to parental experience and aspirations for children, objects and material conditions in the home for comfort and also specific behavioral processes conducive to learning.
EDUCATIONAL UPBRINGING: This refers to education of children and how they perform in academics when subjected to test or examination.
EDUCATIONAL STATUS: This term is used for social processes in which one achieve social competence and individual growth, carried on in a selected, controlled sitting which can be institutionalized as a school or college.
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS: Person’s trade, vocation or principal means of earning living.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: This refers to position of recognition which one finds him in the society. Such a position may not be hereditary but acquired through personal efforts like education, wealth, occupation and social class.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: This refers to the students’ achievement, scores within the class and his position relative to all those subjected the same test.
EFFECTS: the result or outcome of anything be it positive or negative.
HOME SITUATION: This refers to prevailing atmosphere in the home whether violent, resentful or in disarray.
PARENTAL ATTITUDE: Parents disposition to respond in a characteristics way to some stimulus in their social environment. Some responses determine the way and manner their children are brought up by them.