EFFECT OF STRESS ON EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY IN THE SERVICE INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA
Trying to match limited global resources against an ever increasing world population appears to be the crux of the matter. The spill out from this seemingly intractable problem has been the world wide rural urban drift that has invariably led to overcrowded and heavily populated cities with basic infrastructures and other social amenities being stretched almost to breaking point. Rising un-employment, high cost of living, high crime rate and the ever-widening gap between the rich and the poor are also spill-outs from the complex problem earlier mentioned. The disenchantment and disillusionment arising from the foregoing stressful conditions (especially among the poor) has been on the increase over the years (Brown, 1980).
Reliable scientific research efforts on stress and other related issues started to emerge around the middle of the 20th century (Luthan, 1989). The earliest scientists to conduct extensive research into the physiological, psychological (Luthan, 1989). The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) model development by Hans selys many years ago is still very relevant to present day research efforts on stress (narayanan et al, 1999).
Here in Nigeria, quite a number of empirical research studies and clinical experiments have been carried out on the incidence of stress at different levels and under different circumstances (Oloko 1977) Ovurie 1979; Obugbile 1982, Ebie 1983 and Akinnusi 1993. these studies have shown consistent high level of stress among Nigieran workers. Such stress in conjunction with other socio-political and economic factors has contributed to the declining performance and productivity of the Nigerian factors responsible for such stress were properly identified and evaluated. Attempting to address some of the basic issues relating to stress as it affects employees productivity in the service industry is my concern in this project.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Sely (1976) it is widely accepted that the development of stress reaction or symptoms is a functions of factors operating in the internal environment. The nature of the interaction between these variables will determine the prevalence, cause and consequences of stress relation.
There is stress associated with individual, group, organization and extra-organisational actors. On the individual factors, stress can be associated with personal characteristics and life career stages. On the group factors, these include lack of group cohesiveness, lack of social support, inter-personal and inter-group conflict. Thus the effectiveness of employees in any service industry is influenced by the nature of relations among groups. The organizational factor related to conflicting policies, ill-defined responsibilities and authorities, poor physical working condition.
While the extra-organisational factors are associated with societal and technological changes, family situations, poor residential conditions etc. stress may have be neticial as well as adverse effects in the long run. The organism in individuals grows in adaptive capacity through its encounter with stress and faced with blend safe environment. Thus, we can see in every phase of the development of life, from infancy through adolescence, from the struggle to learn to work to earn one’s living, we can attest to the fact that stress is involved in the development of all personal growth. Therefore, since stress has so much on the past of human life, we need to be able to adapt to it if we are to continue to function.
However, despite the draw back of stress, it is not altogether bad for individual employees or their overall organizational performance. Infact, it is generally recognized that at least low level of stress can enhance job performance. This low level of stress required is referred to as “eu-stress” (a Greek word meaning good) Selye (1976). There is therefore the need to understand the term “stress” through the knowledge of the subjects and the practical application of appropriate strategies as to how to either cope without manage stress. This forms the basis for this current study, as it will give the research the opportunity of sampling opinion of different personalities working with Shukura Hotel, Sokoto.