TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES. A CRITICAL FACTOR IN BANKING OPERATIONS (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC.)
This research work is aimed at finding the effect of training development in banking operations.
The purpose is to determine the relationships between the level of productivity and human resources, training and development; discover the causes of high labour turnover in banks, especially commerce banks.
Also to determine the whether the availability of training and development opportunities motivate staff of banks, to enable them stick firmly to the service of the banks.
In conducting the research, the researcher used oral interview, questionnaires and personal observations to collect the necessary data required.
A sample size of 53 (Fifty-three) of First Bank Plc, were studied. The data collected were statistically analyzed by the use of percentage. On the application, it was discovered that training and development opportunities motivate workers and improves the level of job performance of he staff of the banks. Despite the fact that substantial number of banks’ employees have been trained, their performance as still not encouraging
Based on the above findings, the following recommendations were made: Banks should ensure that their training programmes are will structured and planned; equal opportunity for training and development should be given to evenly member of staff at all levels. Training programme should be supported with adequate job rotation and assignment. Training should be structured to cover many of the practical aspects of banking services. Trainers also should be equipped with materials and should ensure regular training for trainers to enable them update their knowledge.
The researcher also recommends that banks should keep this work, and refer to it whenever a training and development programmes is being designed. The idea of dumping research works in the archive without and meaningful use of them is ill concerned.
As man invented tools, weapons, clothing, shelter and language, the need for training because an essential ingredient in the match to civilization. Whether our ancestors stumbled upon, or invented these facets of civilization is of relatively little significance. What is more important is that man has the ability to pass on to others the knowledge and skill gained in mastering circumstances. This was done by deliberate examples, by signs and words. Through these devices, the development process called training was another successfully, we say that learning took place and knowledge or skill was transferred. The ninth century (ninth Century) ushered in an era of social legislation and with it sizeable changes in the concept of workers organization.
Through all these changers, however, and constantly developing emphasis has seen upon quality training of workers, and this has culminated in the stanch support of the Trade Unions for any legislation that provides a wide range of vocational education. One of the objectives of every organization should be to provide opportunities for it employees to optimize their performance in pursuit of the organizational goals. With this end in view, it may be profitable also to help employees feel that the organization cares for them as people, there is more likelihood of their responding willingly to satisfy the needs of the concern.
When we consider training therefore, we are seeking by any instructional or experimental means to develop a person’s behaviour pattern in other to achieve a standard of level of performance. Learn therefore, is an essential prerequisite for adequate performance in one’s occupation whatever the job may be. The importance of human resources to any organization whether public or private has long been identified. Organizational objective such as profit maximization, share of market, and social responsibilities cannot be fulfilled without human beings who co-ordinate the activities of the organization using other factors of production. The realization of the value of human “capital” to any organization has led to a proposal by experts that people should be classified as “assets” and to be so recorded in accounting records. Investment in human capital is a worthy and necessary expenditure of an organization is to discharge its legal, statutory and social responsibilities to its owners, its public and society at large.
The indisputable reason why training of employees should be a revolving undertaking is because of changes posed by modern technology.
Changes take place every minute, hour, day etc, and the world is faced with an era of technological advancements that can make already acquired skills obsolete. Training therefore is not retracted to new employees or old employees, but to both, and even to Senior Management Personnel.
Training brightens employees, and attitude towards their works. The in turn improves job performances at all levels, which facilitates the realization of both individual and organizational objectives.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Banking business in Nigeria started in 1892, by African Banking Corporation. The bank was taken over by now West Africa, now First Bank in 1894, Barley Bank, and now Union Bank was established on 1917.
The tow expatriate banks dominated the banking scene until 1933, when National Bank of Nigeria was established. Many indigenous banks were established between 1929, and 1952. But most of them failed due to probably, to poor management lack of training, part from low capitalization and staff competition from foreign owned banks. Only three indigenous banks and the two foreign banks survived the period/ by 1952, the First Bank ordinance was introduced. It stipulated the minimum capital based and licensing for banks. The period that followed, 1952 to 1962 and 1970, there was no new banks established n Nigeria, presumably because of the impact of regulations and the civil war (1967-1970).
The periods 1959-1986 witnessed the era of regulation. The Central Bank of Nigeria was established n 1959 with to promote and integrate the Nigeria Financial System. The Central Bank of Nigeria encouraged the development of money and capital markets. It also encouraged human resources development in the banking industry. Other useful developments within the period that affected human resources development n banks are:
- The Companies Decree (1968), which made it mandatory for all companies in Nigeria, including banks of register locally and be subjected to Nigeria laws.
- Indigenization Decree (1972), which introduced the system of deliberate Nigerianisation.
- The acquisition of controlling shares in the three big expatriate banks. The period 1986, to date is called the second Banking Boom Era, because of the rapidity with which banks were established due to deregulation of the economy. The Government and private sectors now rely on the banks for the allocation of human resources. The industry had 12 (twelve) merchant and 29 (twenty-nine) commercial banks in 1986, but by December 1990, there was 48 (forty-eight) merchant banks and 58 (fifty-eight) commercial banks apart from 5 (five) development banks and the peoples established in 1989. The Community Banks, a unit of banking system meant mainly for rural communities started springing up towards the end of 1990. As at May, 1991, there were 120 (one hundred and twenty) Merchant and Commercial Banks excluding Central Bank of Nigeria, four Development banks, people banks and Community banks.
The Federal Savings Bank was recently converted to what they call a “whole Commercial Bank”, instead of being a development bank. The rapid growth within the industry and financial system as whole has over stretched the management cadre of banks. It has created rapid upliftment and promotion for many staff training and retraining to maintain a high level of competence with the industry.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Before the establishment of Central Bank 1959, training of Nigeria bankers was not taken seriously by most banks, especially the foreign owned banks. There was a gentleman’s agreement within the foreign- owned banks on competition for business and staff. Except in big cities, one could not see offices of two foreign banks in the same town and mobility of staff among them was not allowed. However, the indigenous banks had to snatch some Nigerians from these banks to survive, since they needed some experienced hands. It is record that foreign banks in the early part of the century employed Nigerians mainly as menials and clerks their management and intermediate staff were expatriates, until the seventies one could see many white faces of Accountants, Managers and Office Executives in banks.
There were no conscious efforts to groom Nigerians for management position, in fact, the calibre of people employed were either drop- out from schools or school certificate holder with lower grades so that they could stay long on the jobs.
The first banking institution that opened a training centre locally was Union Bank in 1956. First Bank did not have a local training centre until 1960. United Bank for Africa, which opened its door for business in 1961 did not start a training centre until 1975. The Savannah Bank formerly Bank of America, did not have a training centre until 1976, even through its first office was opened for business in 1960. NAL merchant Bank only established a training centre in 1988, after 28 years in business. However some banks are known to have set up training centres within a short time after establishment.
Despite all the efforts towards human resources development and by banks, one still observes long queues whenever he comes to deposit money, withdrawal of money or for any other service rendered by the banks.
Secondly, the rate of labour turnover in banks especially Commercial banks in very high compare with what is used to, there is no doubt that this high rate of mobility contributes to the poor services rendered by banks. This in the opinion of the researcher, is very essential returns value to the organization in terms of increased productivity, low rate of labour turnover, heightened morale reduction of costs and enhanced efficiency in order t achieve the organizational goal.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are:
- To determine the influence of human resources, training and development on the operations of the banks.
- To determine whether there is any relationship between labour turnover and availability of training and development opportunities in banks.
- To examines the training and development opportunities available to staff of banks.
- To find out the number of staff trained each year, and how it has affected their performance at work
- To find out whether staff of the banks see the training and development programme as motivating, and means of job enrichment and satisfaction.
- To establish the type of training available, method and places of training.
- To evaluate workers performance before and after training courses.
- To make recommendations where appropriate to the banks in order to maker more meaningful, its human resources training and development programme.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following are research questions:
- Does training’s and development o human resources has any influence on the level of performance of the banks?
- What proportion of the staff are trained annually?
- What types of training programmed are available in the banks?
- Does training and development has any effect on the profitability of the banks?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Training and development does not improve the level of job performance of the staff of the banks?
H0: Availability of training and development opportunities does not have any effect on the rate of labour turn in the banks?
H0: Training and development opportunities do not motivate worker?
H0: Human resources, training and development do not improve the profitability position of banks?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work then completed with be an immense benefit to the following:
- Banks in Nigeria: This study will help the management of the banks in Nigeria to improve the quality of the staff with particular reference to First Bank Plc, main branch.
- Banks’ Customers: An improved banking service will save the customers that time they waste in the banks before they are attended to.
- Nigeria Economy: The research work will help to alleviate all battered economy.
- Banks’ Staff: When banks realize the need for human resources training and development, their employees will no doubt have a greater opportunity of being trained. This will help in developing and shaping their future.
This study covers the Enugu main branch of First Bank of Nigeria Plc thorough study was carried in the main branch. Any other reference to materials, other banks’ activities etc, is for the purpose of clarity, and vivid understanding of the subject topic, and will be with in the scope of his study.
It is to be noted that this study is greatly handicapped by paucity of information on training activities in First Bank Plc. Questionnaires sent to some staff have not responded till the time of writing, despite several reminders, while those who responded left some vital columns unanswered. Other inhibiting factors to the smooth carrying out of the research work include:
Finance: The researcher was unable to cover all the branches of First bank Plc due to the economic hardship facing the nation presently.
Time Constraints: The time provided for that execution of this study is rather too short for a thorough and detailed research on this topic.
Lack of Cooperation from respondents: Some of the respondents who are in positions to give information are secrets, which should not be disclosed. Some to them even fed the researcher with wrong information.
Late returning of questionnaire: Some of the respondents did not return the questionnaires given them and some returned their own very late that they were as good as not returned
Pressure of the course work: The combination of lecture, and this research work did not give the researcher enough time to carry out a thorough study of the subject topic.
This study would have covered all the branches to First Bank of Nigeria Plc, but because of time constraint and finance, the researcher limited her research at Enugu main branch.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Training: - It is the process of preparing somebody to perform a particular job or skill well.
- Development: - It is defined as the action or process by which something or somebody grows or becomes larger, more advanced or more organized.