EFFECT AND IMPLICATION OF FLUORIDE ON DRINKING WELL WATER

ABSTRACT
Analysis of well water sample was carried out using colorimetric method to determine the amount of fluoride in fifteen wells water samples in Iree metropolis of Boripe Local government area of Osun State, Nigeria. The problem of the study is that it was observed that some people living in the area of study are suffering from skeletal deformation and dental fluorosis. This necessitates the study of the fluoride content of the well water in the area.  The well water samples were selected in different parts of Iree metropolis which are; Small London Zone, off Campus Zone, B.H.S Zone, Oris Zone, Eyinade Zone, Oke-Aree Zone and Ladoja Zone. From the results, Small London Zone (Americal Embassy) has 1.0mg/L, (Harmony Garden) has 1.5mg/L and (Sugar Boys Hall) has 0.94mg/L, Off Campus Zone (Alternative Hall) has 0.75mg/L and (His Mercy Hall) has 1.0mg/L, B.H.S Zone (United Kingdom Hall) has 1.2mg/L and (David Liz Hostel) has 1.4mg/L, Oris Zone (Sobaloju Ayoni Hall) has 0.82mg/L, Eyinade Zone (Life International College) has 1.5mg/L, (Terminus  Hall) has 0.98mg/L and (Cotonou Villa) has 1.0mg/L, Oke-Aree Zone (Yakoyo Food Centre) has 1.5mg/L, (Innovated hall) has 1.0mg/L and Ladoja Zone ( Feel at Home Hall) has 1.0mg/L and (New world Phase 4) has 0.95mg/L. It was discovered that some of the well water did not meet up with World Health Organization’s (WHO) standard for the amount of fluoride that should be present in a given portable water which is 1.0-1.5mg/l. From the findings some wells meet the World Health Organization’s (WHO) standard in which some did not. Hence, people living in the study area should analyze their wells before drinking and there should be public enlightenment to this regard.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE                                                                     i
CERTIFICATION                                                                               ii
DEDICATION                                                                   iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                            iv-v
ABSTRACT                                                                       vi
TABLE OF CONTENT                                                       vii-viii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0   INTRODUCTION                                                      
1.1   General Background                                                       
1.2   Statement of the problem                                       
1.3   Aim and objectives of the study                                      
1.4   Significance of the study                                                 
1.5   Scope of the study                                                          
1.6   Limitation of the study                                                    
1.7   Definition of term                                                            

CHAPTER TWO
2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW                                            
2.1      Definition of fluoride                                                    
2.2      Forms in which fluoride exist                                              
2.3   Uses of fluoride                                                               
2.4      Health impact of fluoride                                             
2.5      Fluoridation                                                         
2.6      How effective is water fluoridation                                       
2.7      Effect of fluoride on drinking well water                              
2.8      Effects on teeth                                                            
2.9     How does fluoride prevent tooth decays?                              
2.10   Preventive Measure of Fluoride                                     

CHAPTER THREE          
3.0   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                        
3.1      Water sample collection                                                       
3.2      Methodology                                                        

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0   RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS                                
4.1       Results of the Analysis                                                       
4.2       Discussions                                                
4.3   How to normalize water that contains low level of fluoride in well water 
4.4       Photographs of Water Samples and Some Equipment Used For Water Analysis                                                                  
CHAPTER FIVE        
5.0   CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                     
5.1      Conclusion                                                          
5.2      Recommendations                                                               
Reference

 CHAPTER ONE
1.0   INTRODUCTION

     General Background

     Fluoride is one of the very few chemicals that have been shown to cause significant effects in people through drinking-water. Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth at low concentrations in drinking-water, but excessive exposure to fluoride in drinking-water, or in combination with exposure to fluoride from other sources, can give rise to a number of adverse effects. These range from mild dental fluorosis to crippling skeletal fluorosis as the level and period of exposure increases. Crippling skeletal fluorosis is a significant cause of morbidity in a number of regions of the world (J. Fawell, K. Bailey, J. Chilton, E. Dahi, L. Fewtrell and Y. Magara 2006).
Fluoride is known to occur at elevated concentrations in a number of parts of the world and in such circumstances can have, and often has, a significant adverse impact on public health and well-being (J. Fawell, K. Bailey, J. Chilton, E. Dahi, L. Fewtrell and Y. Magara 2006).
There is now a continuing process of updating the (GDWQ) Guideline for Drinking Water Quality, through which it was concluded that there was a need for a monograph on fluoride in drinking-water that would be useful to a wide range of individuals, including health workers and sanitary engineers who may require a broad introduction to the subject, but would still provide more detailed guidance in some specific areas. Such a monograph could provide an appropriate introduction and background information, and indicate where other more detailed information could be obtained. The primary focus of the monograph is  the prevention of adverse effects from excessive levels of fluoride in drinking-water.
Fluoride is found in all natural waters at some concentration. Seawater typically contains about 1mg l–1 while rivers and lakes generally exhibit concentrations of less than 0.5 mg l–1. In groundwater, however, low or high concentrations of fluoride can occur, depending on the nature of the rocks and the occurrence of fluoride-bearing minerals. Concentrations in water are limited by fluorite solubility, so that in the presence of 40 mg l–1 calcium it should be limited to
3.1 mg l–1(Hem, 1989). It is the absence of calcium in solution which allows higher concentrations to be stable (Edmunds and Smedley, 1996).
Iree town which is the focus of this project work has a very high tendency for the presence of fluoride in its ground water because of the geological nature of the area. Iree is a town surrounded by different rocks and the presence of this rock naturally leads to the presence of fluoride in all the well water in Iree metropolis.
The problem that necessitated this project include dental fluorosis and skeletal deformation in some people living in Iree metropolis.
This project is to determine the effect and implication of fluoride on drinking well water in some areas in Iree community of Osun state, Nigeria.

      Statement Of The Problem

        The problem of the study is the health hazard noticeable among the inhabitants of the study areas such as dental fluorosis and skeletal deformation which may be traceable to the amount of fluoride in well water.

     Aims And Objectives Of The Study

  1. To know the required dosage of fluoride needed in drinking well water.
  2. To know the health implications of the amount of fluoride in drinking well water in Iree metropolis.

 

    1.     Significance of The Study

Fluoride has beneficial effects on teeth at low concentrations in drinking-water, but excessive exposure to fluoride in drinking-water, or in combination with exposure to fluoride from other sources, can give rise to a number of adverse effects such as Dental fluorosis, and skeletal deformation.

        1.5      Scope of the Study
This project work covers well water from Off-campus, Ladoja, Oke Aare, Small London, Oris, B.H.S, and Eyinade area of Iree metropolis.

 

 

 

1.6     Limitation of the Study
The project work could not cover the entire iree community for the following reason

  1. Financial constraints.
  2. Mobility.
  3. Time constraints.
  4.  Lack of accessibility in some areas.
    1. Definition Of Terms

EFFECT: This may refer to a result or change of something.
IMPLICATION: This is the conclusion that can be drawn from something, although it is not explicitly stated.
GDWQ: This is the acronym of Guideline for Drinking Water Quality.
FLOUROSIS: This is a condition due to the ingestion of excess amount of fluorine.
FLOURIDE: Fluoride is the anion of fluorine, it is also the reduced formed of fluorine.
FUMAROLIC GASES: This is a vent in the surface of the Earth from which hot smoke and gases escape.
FLUORIDATION: This is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.
DENTAL FLUOROSIS: This is a change in the appearance of the tooth’s enamel.
ENDEMIC: This means a disease occurs frequently and at a predictable rate in a specific location or population.
ENAMEL: This is a vitreous, usually opaque, protective or decorative coating baked on metal, glass, or ceramic.

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